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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 June 2002, Volume 45 Issue 3
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    Expression and identification of general odorant binding proteinⅡfrom Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)
    WANG Gui-Rong, GUO Yu-Yuan, WU Kong-Ming*
    2002, 45(3):  285-289. 
    Abstract ( 2548 )   PDF (511KB) ( 985 )     
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    The intact open reading fragment sequence of mature GOBP2-Harm from Helicoverpa armigera was obtained by PCR amplification. The ORF of GOBP2-Harm was subcloned into expression vector pGEX-4T-1. Recombinant protein was expressed successfully in E. coli induced by IPTG. The analysis of SDS-PAGE showed that most of recombinant protein was insoluble inclusion body and only little fraction of recombinant protein of GOBP2-Harm is soluble. In order to obtain abundant soluble recombinant protein, the insoluble inclusion body GOBP2-Harm was solubilized, refolded and purified. The purified product was crossreactive with an anti-GOBP (Antheraea polyphemus) antiserum, which indicated the purified protein belonged to GOBP of insect.
    Analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence of the microsporidium, Nosema bombycis and its secondary structure
    WANG Jian-Yang1, HUANG Ke-Wei1, LU Chang-De2
    2002, 45(3):  290-295. 
    Abstract ( 2546 )   PDF (411KB) ( 879 )     
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    The nucleotide sequence (1 205 bp) of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA) of the microsporidium, Nosema bombycis (Zhenjiang), was amplified by polymerase chain reaction(PCR). Its 3'-end was obtained using the single specific primer-PCR technique with the primers matching the highly conserved parts of SSUrRNA genes cloned. The entire coding region for SSUrRNA of N. bombycis (Zhenjiang) was 1 233 bp as described elsewhere. The sequence shared high homology with those of many microsporidia, especially N. apis. The secondary structure of the SSUrRNA was constructed with RnaViz, Forcon and DCSE. There were no helices such as 10, E10-1, 11,18, E23-n and 43 in it.
    Effects of plant allelochemicals on nutritional utilization and detoxication enzyme activities in two Helicoverpa species
    DONG Jun-Feng, ZHANG Ji-Hong, WANG Chen-Zhu*
    2002, 45(3):  296-300. 
    Abstract ( 3044 )   PDF (311KB) ( 1126 )     
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    The effects of four plant allelochemicals,gossypol, nicotine, tomatine and capsicine, on nutritional utilization and detoxication enzymes activities in midgut were investigated with the 5th instar larvae of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, and oriental tobacco budworm, H. assulta. The results showed that H. armigera exhibited wide adaptability to all the four allelochemicals, whereas H. assulta could only fit well to nicotine and capsicin, which were the allelochemicals from its host plants. Midgut CarE activity was unaffected by the allelochemicals in H. armigera and H. assulta. GST activity in the midgut of H. assulta could be strongly induced by nicotine and capsicine, but significantly inhibited by tomatine; none of the four allelochemicals could affect midgut GST activity in H. armigera.
    In vivo activity of prothoracicostatic peptide in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    LIU Xin1, HUA Yue-Jin1*, XU Bu-Jin1,TANAKA Yoshia-ki2
    2002, 45(3):  301-306. 
    Abstract ( 3116 )   PDF (336KB) ( 818 )     
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    Prothoracicostatic peptide is one of insect brain neuropeptides, which was observed to inhibit the prothoracic glands of the silkworms, Bombyx mori, at active stage of ecdysone biosynthesis, in the experiments in vitro. In the present paper, prothoracicostatic peptide was injected into the silkworms in different dosages with different methods, single or strengthened injection, and hemolyms were taken thereafter in different intervals. By using 3H-ecdysteriod radioimmunoassay, a remarkable in vivo activity of prothoracicostatic peptide and developmental changes of ecdysteroid titer in the silkworm in vivo, caused by prothoracicostatic peptide treatment were gained. This is the first evidence that prothoracicostatic peptide significantly inhibits ecdysteroidogenesis in an insect in vivo.
    Purification and mechanism of enzymic hydrolysis of apyrase from salivary glands of Haemaphysalis longicornis
    CHENG Yuan-Guo1, WU Hou-Yong1,LI De-Chang2, LI Cheng-Wen1, ZHAO Tong-Yan1
    2002, 45(3):  307-312. 
    Abstract ( 2928 )   PDF (344KB) ( 883 )     
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    Apyrase was isolated from soluble crude salivary glands extract of Haemaphysalis longicornis by a Cibacron Blue column and a Macrosphere weak cation-exchange column. Apyrase could hydrolyse ATP and ADP, but failed to hydrolyse AMP. The approach Km, obtained with ATP and ADP as substrates, were evaluated 0.2 μmol/L and the approach Vmax were 12.5 and 15.6 μmol/(min·mg) respectively. During the hydrolysis of ATP as monitored by HPLC, the UV-absorbing compounds observed were the ADP and AMP,and for ADP was the AMP only. Direct evidence showed that the hydrolysis site of ATP and ADP occurred by cleavage at the phosphate residues γ- and β- to the 5' carbon atom of the ribose was obtained by enzymically hydrolyzing both [γ-32P]ATP and [β-32P]ADP and separating the products by ion-exchange HPLC. The mechanism of ATP and ADP hydrolysis is sequential removal of phosphate residues to produce, finally, AMP.
    Fast isolation and amino acids analysis of an egg recognition kairomone of Telenomus theophilae from Theophila mandarina and Bombyx mori
    GAO Qi-Kang, HU Cui
    2002, 45(3):  313-317. 
    Abstract ( 2863 )   PDF (371KB) ( 971 )     
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    Based on the special physical characteristics of an egg recognition kairomone protein of Telenomus theophilae, a simple, practical, and effective technique (temperature approach) was used to purify the kairomone proteins from Bombyx mori and Theophila mandarina. The compositions of amino acids in kairomone proteins of female accessory glands were very similar between the two moths. Molar percentages of glycine, glutamic and aspartic acid of 15 amino acids detected exceeded 10% in both moths: 28.1%, 18.5% and 12.6%, respectively, in B. mori, and 24.4%, 18.1%, and 10.1%, respectively, in T. mandarina. The total amount of these three amino acids exceeded 50% in both moths. Hydrolyzed by chymotrypsin, the polypeptides of the B. mori kairomone protein formed a waterinsoluble precipitate. The molecular weight of the polypeptides was about 10 kD as judged by SDS-PAGE. This result suggests that the primary structures of the kairomone protein and silk protein from B. mori are similar, both containing a crystalline (precipitate) and a amorphous (supernatant) region.
    Effects of metal ions and urea on alkaline phosphatase from Ericerus pela (Chavannes)
    ZHAO Xin-Ping, SHU Chang, YANG Fang, LIU Ke-Wu, YU Dong
    2002, 45(3):  318-322. 
    Abstract ( 2911 )   PDF (275KB) ( 1012 )     
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    The effects of metal ions and urea on the alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity from Ericerus pela (Chavannes) were surveyed. The enzyme was purified from the female adult. After each metal ion and urea had been mixed with the enzyme, the enzyme activity was determined. K+, Na+ and Li+ had not any effect on the enzyme activity. Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+ activated the enzyme. Zn2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ inhibited the enzyme. The Ca2+ was a more efficacious activator and the effect was classified as noncompetitive type. The inhibition of Cu2+ on the enzyme was found to be of noncompetitive type. The AKP was inactivated by urea; the inactivation could be divided into two kinds according to the concentration of the urea: lower than 3 mol/L and higher than 3 mol/L. At lower concentration, the effect of urea on the enzyme displayed a mixed type of inhibition.
    Characteristic response of the compound eyes of Helicoverpa armigera to light
    WEI Guo-Shu1, ZHANG Qing-Wen2, ZHOU Ming-Zang2, WU Wei-Guo3
    2002, 45(3):  323-328. 
    Abstract ( 3455 )   PDF (364KB) ( 1303 )     
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    The photosensitivity and spectral responsiveness of cotton bollworm (CBW) moth, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) were determined by an electroretinogram (ERG) recording method. The results indicated: (1) different monochromatic light within U. V. and most of visible light region across the spectrum ranging from 340 nm to 605 nm may induce ERG reactions of CBW's compound eye with different amplitudes. According to the size of ERG amplitude (peak-peak value), there were three peaks in their spectral sensitivity curves, the major one appeared at 562 nm (Green), the second 483 nm (Blue) and the third 400 nm, suggesting at least three types receptors in the compound eye of CBW moth. (2) Sex, day-age, and dark-adapted time affected its spectral sensitivity. Young male moth was more sensitive than young female, while old moth in opposite; the size of ERG amplitude of 3-day-old moth was highest in 1-5 days old moth; the moth photosensitivity got stronger with dark-adapted time lasting. (3) In a certain intensity range of monochromatic and white light stimuli, the stronger the luminance got, the higher the ERG value of a certain age CBW moth, a near S shape curve appeared. This suggests the compound eye of CBW moth has a strong adapting ability to light.
    Ultra-morphology and infrared absorption spectra of the waxes secreted by a scale insect, Didesmococcus koreanus (Homoptera: Coccidae)
    XIE Ying-Ping, ZHENG Le-Yi
    2002, 45(3):  329-335. 
    Abstract ( 2969 )   PDF (5333KB) ( 1042 )     
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    The ultra-morphology and chemical composition of the waxes secreted by the scale insect, Didesmococcus koreanus Borchs, was studied with scanning electron microscope and infrared spectra techniques. It was found that the waxes secreted by the young nymphs are long threads in its shape. Quite the contrary, the waxes changed their shape into granular, mass and piece on the dorsal surface of the old nymphs and adult females. By comparing the characteristics of the infrared absorption spectra of the waxes, the conclusion is that the main kind of chemical function groups and compositions are basic the same or similar in the two waxes secreted respectively by the young scale insect and the old one. A mid-strong absorption peak at 1 240.7 cm-1 indicated the male scale insect's waxy cover having a different function group. Therefore, its composition is different to the female one's and the young nymph's. Based on the infrared spectra, it is suggested that the scale insect's waxy compounds are composed majorly by longchain fatty alcohol and fatty acids and some compounds with aromatic ring.
    Cuticular penetration and desensitivity of GABAA receptor in abamectin resistant Plutella xylostella L.
    WU Qing-Jun1, ZHANG Wen-Ji2, ZHANG You-Jun1, XU Bao-Yun1,ZHU Guo-Ren1
    2002, 45(3):  336-340. 
    Abstract ( 2414 )   PDF (295KB) ( 983 )     
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    The dynamics of topically applied 3H-abamectin to the fourth instar larvae was compared between the ABM-S and ABM-R strains. The results showed that during the period of 5 to 360 minutes, the number of 3H-abamectin penetrated the cuticular of ABM-R strain was 1.5-fold reduction to that of ABM-S strain. Treatment after 24h, the extraneous3H-abamectin still remained 45.9% in the ABM-R strain. While in the ABM-S strain, there was 98.4% of the 3H-abamectin penetrated the cuticular. Radioligand binding assay indicated that the change of GABAA receptor binding was also involved in abamectin resistance. Scatchard assay showed that there was no significant difference or receptor affinity between the ABM-S strain (Kd=10.9368±0.4374 nmol/L), and the ABM-R strain (Kd=9.8328±0.3933nmol/L). However, the maximum number of GABAA receptor was decreased 63.6% in the ABM-R strain (Bmax= 71.2842±4.9910 fmol/mg protein) compared with the ABM-S strain (Bmax=112.0255±7.8418 fmol/mg protein). Therefore, the change of GABAA receptor binding was caused by the reduction of receptor number, not the change of its molecular structure.
    Selection, decline and recovery of Tetranychus urticae Koch resistance to fenpropathrin, omethoate and clofentezine
    SHEN Hui-Min, ZHANG Xin-Hu
    2002, 45(3):  341-345. 
    Abstract ( 2775 )   PDF (261KB) ( 1083 )     
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    After the susceptible strains of Tetranychus urticae were sprayed with omethoate, fenpropathrin, clofentezine for 15 times, their resistance to these insecticides increased 38.5, 479.8 and 67.3-fold respectively. Cross and backcross breeding between the resistant and the susceptible strains showed that the dominance coefficient (D) of the R-omethoate strain was RS=0.4700 and SR=0.4797; D of the R-fenpropathrin strain was RS=0.5155 and SR=0.5237; D of the R-clofentezine strain was RS=0.2466 and SR=0.3134. It was inferred that their resistance to the insecticides was controlled by a single and incomplete dominant gene. The resistance of three strains significantly declined when spraying was suspended for 10 months, and following spraying for fifteen successive times with the 3 insecticides respectively resulted in recovery of their resistance to the corresponding insecticide to different extents.
    The developmental length for flight and inhibition from reproductives on individual differentiation of colony of Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder
    LIU Yuan-Zhi1, TAN Su-Jin2, WEI Han-Jun2, Sun Jian-Ning2, TANG Guo-Qing1, Chen Shi1
    2002, 45(3):  346-351. 
    Abstract ( 3017 )   PDF (342KB) ( 869 )     
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    The developmental length for mating flight and the inhibition from reproductive caste on individual differentiation of colony in Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder were investigated. The results showed that 16.70% of reared colonies presented flight at the seventh year and 83.70% at ninth year under a pair of first form reproductives. The duration of the development for flight was 8.67 years on average. But 53.85% of those colonies under replacement reproductive types did flight at the sixth year and 46.15% at the seventh. Actually those colonies under replacement reproductives presented flight 2.29 years earlier than those under first form ones on average. When the flight took place, the members in colonies under first form reproductives were much more than those under the replacement reproductives for the former had longer development duration. It was also found that the number of replacement reproductives in colonies had no obvious relationship with the developmental length for flight. Based on these observations, it was inferred that the first form reproductives could inhibit the differentiation of the replacement reproductives and nymphs much more strongly than the replacement reproductives could do.  Even though the developing speed of colonies in Reticulitermes chinensis took an important role in the differentiation of castes, the obvious influence would come into being after the pheromone excreting in reproductives weakened
    Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay used to detect the food relationships of the arthropods in paddy fields
    LIU Yu-Fang1,2, ZHANG Gu-Ren1, GU De-Xiang1, WEN Rui-Zheng1
    2002, 45(3):  352-358. 
    Abstract ( 2755 )   PDF (351KB) ( 1090 )     
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    The double antibody sandwich technique, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was developed to detect the food relationships among 19 species of predators, 4 pest insects and 1 neutral insect in paddy fields in Dasha Township, Sihui County, Guangdong Province. The results indicated that 15 and 11 species of predatory arthropods preyed on the white-back planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, and the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Ummeliata insecticeps, Pirata subpiraticus, Coleosoma octomaculatum,Clubiona japonocola,Dyschiriognatha quadrimaculata and Pardosa pseudoannulata were the major natural enemies of the two planthoppers. Seven predatory species preyed on Cnaphalocrocis medinalis larva, of which Clubiona japonocola, C. corrugata,Pardosa pseudoannulata, Paederus fuscipes and Casnoidea indica were the important ones. P. Pseudoannulata, P. tschekiangensis and P. subpiraticus were the major predators on nymph of Oxya sp. Chironomus sp. Was preyed by 13 predatory species. As the major or supplementary prey of predators, Chironomus sp. Played an important role in reestablishment and regulation the structure of arthropod community in paddy fields. The food relationship pattern of the assayed arthropods in paddy fields was constructed based on the results of the ELISA.
    The diversity of arthropod community and control function to brown planthopper (BPH) in rice field
    LIU Xiang-Dong1,ZHANG Xiao-Xi1,LUO Yue-Jin2,ZHU Yuan-Liang3,LIU Tian-Long3
    2002, 45(3):  359-364. 
    Abstract ( 2721 )   PDF (365KB) ( 1078 )     
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    The diversity of arthropod community in five types of paddy were studied in Jiangpu, Jiangsu Province and Anqing, Anhui Province. The results showed that the diversity was the highest in the round grained rice field. The correlation frequency in 11 years between population density of spider sub-community and the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens was 0.64. The EF index [EF=(E+P)E/P] was employed to evaluate the nature enemy function to control the brown planthopper. The relations of spider functional group with growth, reproduction and population density of brown planthopper were investigated by numerical functional response method. The relations of the initial EF value with the injured rate of rice and the carrying capacity of logistic curve of the brown planthopper population (K) were significant. The possibility of using the initial EF value to predict the enemy function and to coordinate the pest control strategies with natural enemies and with chemical insecticides was discussed.
    A study on the genera Metaeuchromius Bleszynski, Euchromius Guenée and Miyakea Marumo from China, with descriptions of two new species of Metaeuchromius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, Crambinae)
    CHEN Tie-Mei, SONG Shi-Mei, YUAN De-Cheng*
    2002, 45(3):  365-370. 
    Abstract ( 2674 )   PDF (305KB) ( 940 )     
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    Three genera Metaeuchromius Bleszynski, Euchromius Guenée and Miyakea Marumo in China are reviewed, with 12 species included. Two species of Metaeuchromius Bleszynski are described as new to science: M. fulvusalis sp. Nov. from Guangxi, related to M. circe Bleszynski, and M. grisalis sp. Nov. from Zhejiang, related to M. yuennanensis Caradja. Comparisons between new species and related species and key to the Chinese species of Metaeuchromius are given.
    The morphology of mature larvae of three species injurious to red pine cone from Korea
    PIAO Mei-Hua1, CHEN Xue-Xin1, LEE Chan-Young2
    2002, 45(3):  371-376. 
    Abstract ( 3305 )   PDF (325KB) ( 1063 )     
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    The larval external morphology of Dioryctria abietella (Denis and Schiffermüller), D. sylvestrella (Ratzeburg) (Pyralidae) and Eupithecia abietaria debrunneata Staudinger (Geometridae) of Lepidoptera is described and illustrated.
    A new species of Parapolytrechus Breuning from Hainan Province, China (Coloeptera: Cerambycidae, Lamiinae)
    WANG Wen-Kai1,2, ZHENG Le-Yi1
    2002, 45(3):  377-379. 
    Abstract ( 2866 )   PDF (140KB) ( 1094 )     
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    This paper deals with a new species of lamiine beetles from Hainan Province, China: Parapolytrechus flavotarsus Wang et Zheng, sp.nov. This new species can be distinguished from the related species P. rugosus(Matsushita,1933)by the following characters :(1) the 3rd to 5th antennal segments normal instead of expanded at apical portion; (2) light yellow colored with 8th to 11th antennal segments and tarsi; (3) scutellum small and rounded apically;and (4) blackish dark in whole elytra.
    The larval morphology of Frontopsylla nakagawai borealosinica (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae)
    LU Liang, WU Hou-Yong
    2002, 45(3):  380-383. 
    Abstract ( 2772 )   PDF (180KB) ( 1040 )     
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    The morphology of the larva of Frontopsylla nakagawai borealosinica (Fnb) Liu, Wu et Chang, 1986 was studied and compared with other five congeneric species: F. spadix spadix (Fss), F. elatoides intermedia (Fei), F. elatoides elatoides (Fee), F. aspiniformis (Fa) and F. frontalis baibacina (Ffb). The number of mandibular teeth for each species is: 5 (Fnb), 5-6 (Fss), 5 (Fei), 5 (Fee), 5 (Fa) and 9 (Ffb). The number of occipital setae: 4(6) (Fnb), 4(4) (Fss), 4(12) (Fei), 6(6) (Fee), 4(6) (Fa) and 4(10) (Ffb). The number of setae of 1-5 abdominal segments in the posterior pringcipal row: 10(2) (Fnb), 10(2) (Fss), 8(4) (Fei), 8(4) (Fee), 10(2) (Fa) and 8(4) (Ffb). The number of setae of fore/hind rows on anal comb: 4-6/20-24 (Fnb), 4/14-16 (Fss), 10-12/20-26 (Fei), 4/28-30 (Fee), 5-9/18-20 (Fa) and 2/14-17 (Ffb). The number of strut setae per side: 8-11 (Fnb), 8-11 (Fss), 18-20 (Fei), 18-20 (Fee), 15 (Fa) and 7-9 (Ffb). The shapes of egg burst by dorsal view are like the shape of shoe except that of F. frontalis baibacina, which is like the shape of table tennis bat. Based on all characters listed above, F. nakagawai borealosinica has closer relationship with F. spadix spadix with a distinguishable character, the number of setae of hind row on anal comb. It is obvious that these six species of Frontopsylla can be classified to two groups according to the number of mandibular teeth and the shape of egg burst: one group consisting of one single species, F. frontalis baibacina, and another group consisting of the rest species. This grouping is congruent with that based on adult morphology.
    The effects of larval midgut fluid on the insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystal
    SHAO Zong-Ze1, 2,YU Zi-Niu3
    2002, 45(3):  384-390. 
    Abstract ( 3030 )   PDF (484KB) ( 1228 )     
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    The effects of larval midgut fluid on the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystal were reviewed in this paper. The characteristics of larval midgut juice, including pH value, the composition and activity of proteases, affect not only the crystal solubility and efficiency of protoxin activation,but also its insecticidal specificity. On the other hand, excessive degradation of protoxins in midgut juices was responsible for the low susceptibility of some insects. On the contrary, the retardation of protoxin activation in midgut juice contributes to the resistance of some insects against Bt. Moreover, the precipitation effect of gut juice on protoxins was another factor to lower Bt toxicity.
    Knockdown resistance and sodium channel
    WANG Jian-Jun, HAN Zhao-Jun, WANG Yin-Chang
    2002, 45(3):  391-396. 
    Abstract ( 3297 )   PDF (427KB) ( 1116 )     
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    This paper reviews the current progress of the relationship between Kdr- type resistance and sodium channel. Toxicological and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated the presence of Kdr-type resistance in many pyrethroid-resistant insects. Molecular genetic evidence has been presented that Kdr-type resistance is linked to a sodium channel locus in many pyrethroid-resistant insects. Moreover, a number of recent studies have already demonstrated that several mutations in structure gene of sodium channel are associated with Kdr-type resistance, which is thought to be the mechanism of reduced sensitivity of the insect nervous system to pyrethroid insecticides. However, several problems, such as the conservation and distribution of point mutation, remain to be clarified.
    Parental investment and sex role reversal: nuptial gift and its effects on sexual selection in katydids
    GAO Yong, KANG Le
    2002, 45(3):  397-400. 
    Abstract ( 2523 )   PDF (248KB) ( 1234 )     
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    Parental investment theory and sexual selection theory suggests that investment by males through courtship feeding of their mates may represent an important source of nutrition and ultimately influences patterns of sexual selection. In certain insects males provide nutritional products from reproductive accessory glands during mating; these are either eaten by the female or are absorbed in her genital tract. Male bushcrickets (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) feed their mates with an elaborate spermatophore consisting of a spermatophylax, which is eaten by the female after mating, and a sperm ampulla, eaten after the ejaculate has emptied. Studies of the species with very large spermatophores have revealed a rolereversal in reproductive behaviour, with females aggressively competing for males capable of producing spermatophores. Population density, nutritional condition and operational sex ratio are the three main affecting factors.
    Studies on esterase isoenzyme of Pieris rapae at different developmental stages
    GUO Xiao-Xia1, ZHENG Zhe-Min2
    2002, 45(3):  401-403. 
    Abstract ( 2625 )   PDF (174KB) ( 1124 )     
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    The vertical slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technology was used to study the esterase isoenzyme of Pieris rapae at different developmental stages. The function of esterase isoenzyme in its ontogenetic development was discussed.
    The sex pheromone communication system of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)
    SUN Fan1, HU Yin-Yue1, DU Jia-Wei2
    2002, 45(3):  404-407. 
    Abstract ( 2756 )   PDF (227KB) ( 968 )     
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    The sex pheromone components of Spodoptera litura from China were identified by using analytical technique of single female sex pheromone gland. The individual differences, daily changes and scotophase rhythms of these components were studied. Electroantennogram (EAG) responses of male to these components and its mixture were recorded. Four components, Z9, E11-14∶Ac(A),Z9, E12-14∶Ac(B),Z9-14∶Ac© and E11-14∶Ac(D), were found in the female sex pheromone gland at a ratio of 100∶27∶20∶27.
    A preliminary investigation on structure and dynamics of egg parasitoid community on the brown planthopper in rice field
    MAO Run-Qian1, GU De-Xiang2, ZHANG Gu-Ren2, ZHANG Wen-Qing2
    2002, 45(3):  408-412. 
    Abstract ( 2964 )   PDF (282KB) ( 968 )     
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    The hopper egg parasitoids, which could parasite eggs of the brown planthopper (BPH), were studied at community level. The communities were made up of 19 hopper egg parasitoids, which belonged to 2 families, Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae. Three species, Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang, A. longitubulosus Pang et Wang and A. paranilaparvatae Pang et Wang, were the dominant species, had high percentage in the community, and took an important role in controlling BPH in rice field. The dynamics of different genera were relatively steady in the community, but the dynamics of species, even the domimant species, were not steady. The communities were positively related to the number of the brown planthopper in rice field during the early period, fluctuated in a certain range during the middle period, and increased then fell down greatly before harvesting, in both early and late rice growth. The percentages of BPH eggs with hopper egg parasitoids during the early, middle, and late period of rice growth were about 76%, 70%, and 50% respectively.
    Influence of temperature on flight potential of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard
    LEI Zhong-Ren,WANG Yin,HUANG Dong-Ru,CHENG Deng-Fa
    2002, 45(3):  413-415. 
    Abstract ( 2905 )   PDF (167KB) ( 1034 )     
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    This paper deals with the flight ability of adult Liriomyza sativae at temperatures from 18℃ to 36 ℃,which was determined using a 32 channel, computer-monitored flight mill system. Their maximum flight distance,speed and duration reached 8.22 km, 1.10 km/h and 253.5 min at 33℃, respectively. The suitable temperatures for their flight ranged from 21℃ to 36℃ and the average flight distances were 0.32~0.95 km for the female and 0.22~0.78 km for the male at these temperatures. The flight distance, speed and duration increased with increasing temperature between 18℃ and 33℃. The flight ability of the female was greater than the male. These results suggested that L. sativae could actively migrate with the maximal dispersal distance of about 0.95 km.
    Role of brain in controlling diapause in Helicoverpa armigera
    WANG Fang-Hai1, GONG He2, QIN Jun-De2
    2002, 45(3):  416-418. 
    Abstract ( 2411 )   PDF (154KB) ( 934 )     
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    It was confirmed that the pupae of Helicoverpa armigera needed brain in the early development stage by the experiment of brain excision. The development of diapause pupae did not need brain in the mid or later development stage. The pupal diapause in H. armigera could be terminated with the injection of active brain, and it was suggested that the activation of brain in diapause-destined H. armigera had descended since prepupal stages. The role of brain in diapause in H. armigera was discussed based on these results.