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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 October 2004, Volume 47 Issue 5
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    Proliferation characteristics of three Japanese strains of Spodoptera litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus in cultural cells and sequence analysis of their polyhedrin genes
    ZHU Jiang1, SHEN Song-Dong1, WANG Wen-Bing2, ZHU Yu-Fang1, IKEDA Motoko3, HU Zhao-Li1, SHENG Ye1
    2004, 47(5):  543-550. 
    Abstract ( 2613 )   PDF (891KB) ( 847 )     
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    Biological and molecular characteristics of three strains (K-3, G1-2 and G-10) of Spodoptera litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltMNPV), isolated from Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku, Japan, which had strong pesticide activity to S. litura, were primarily studied using the cultured cell strain of S. litura. The polyhedrin genes of the three strains was cloned and sequenced. The results showed that: (1) the three Japanese strains K-3, G1-2 and G10-3 had different restriction fragmentation patterns and belonged to the nucleic acid type A, B and C of SpltMNPV respectively. (2) There are differences in the outputs of budded virus (BV) and polyhedron between the three strains. According to the analysis of immunological blotting, the molecular weights of polyhedrin in the three strains were different. (3) The polyhedrin gene of the Japanese SpltMNPV is composed of 747 nucleic acids, which codes a peptide of 249 amino acids. The nucleic acid sequences homology is as high as 98.9% compared with the Chinese strain, and 61.7%-74.2% with other six NPVs compared. However, in the 5' upstream sequence (nt-1-100), SpltMNPV differs significantly with AcMNPV and BmNPV. There are 2 point mutations in the sequence with 8 highly conservative nucleic acids (nt-44-51), which is the domain of the promoter. Interestingly, in spite of only one mutation occurred in the polyhedron open reading frame of SpltMNPV C type, the western blot result showed that the molecular weight of polyhedron of SpltMNPV C type is apparently different from that of A type and B type.
    Effects of venom from two pteromalid wasps Pteromalus puparum and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on the spreading, viability and encapsulation capacity of Pieris rapae hemocytes
    ZHANG Zhong, YE Gong-Yin*, HU Cui
    2004, 47(5):  551-561. 
    Abstract ( 3032 )   PDF (4539KB) ( 1041 )     
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    The effects on host hemocytes with the microinjection with venom from an endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) into its host pupae of Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in vivo were bioassayed. The results indicated that the venom at the dose of 0.5 venom reservoir equivalent (VRE) per host pupa was enough to significantly reduce the spreading and viability of host plasmatocytes and granular cells as well as the capability of host hemocytes to encapsulate Sephadex A-50 beads at 4 h and 24 h after injection. The same physiological effects were performed by the venom at the dose ranging from 0.002 to 0.02 VRE/μL as P. rapae hemocytes were incubated with the venom of this parasitoid in vivo. The concentrations of the venom to inhibit 90% plasmatocytes and granular cells of P. rapae were 0.00076 VRE/μL and 0.00804 VRE/μL, respectively. The medium concentrations of the venom to inhibit encapsulation capacity of P. rapae hemocytes in vivo and in vitro were 0.0425 VRE/pupa and 0.00007 VRE/μL, respectively. Thus, it is clear that P. puparum venom has the physiological function of markedly inhibiting the spreading and encapsulation capacity of its host hemocytes and resulting in the death of its host hemocytes. In contrast, the venom from Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), an ectoparasitoid that does not parasitize P. rapae in nature, did not appear to have any effect on P. rapae hemocytes either in vivo or in vitro under the same conditions as that of the experiments with P. puparum venom. These findings suggest that the physiological effect of the venom from a defined species against insect target hemocytes has its host specificity.
    Effect of juvenile hormone analogue and ecdysteroids on the activity of phenoloxidase in larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    FENG Cong-Jing1, DAI Hua-Guo2, FU Wen-Jun1*
    2004, 47(5):  562-566. 
    Abstract ( 2888 )   PDF (305KB) ( 1030 )     
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    The effect of juvenile hormone analogue (JHA), methoprene, and 20hydroxyecdysone (20-E) on the activity of phenoloxidase in 5th instar larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis was investigated. The activities of phenoloxidase in integument, hemolymph and hemocyte lysate of the treated O. furnacalis larvae were determined. The results showed that when larvae were treated with 1 μg methoprene and 0.1 μg methoprene, the activity of henoloxidase in integument of the larvae was higher than that of the control group (P<0.01), and the activities of phenoloxidase in hemolymph and hemocyte lysate also increased significantly (P<0.01). When larvae were reared with the artificial diet supplemented with 20-hydroxyecdysone, the activity of phenoloxidase in the integument of the larvae was lower than that of the control group (P<0.05), and the activities of phenoloxidase in hemolymph and hemocyte lysate decreased significantly (P<0.01). These results suggest that methoprene stimulates the activity of phenoloxidase, while 20-hydroxyecdysone, in contrast, inhibits the activity of phenoloxidase in O. furnacalis larvae.
    Infectivity of a Pieris brassicaederived Zoophthora radicans isolate and its new hostpassage isolates against Plutella xylostella in relation to the phenoloxidase activity in the new host hemolymph after infection
    LI Juan, XU Jun-Huan*, FENG Ming-Guang
    2004, 47(5):  567-572. 
    Abstract ( 2749 )   PDF (375KB) ( 946 )     
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    A Pieris brassicae derived Zoophthora radicans isolate, R0, and its host-passage isolates R1-R5, obtained by repeatedly passing through Plutella xylostella larvae, were bioassayed against the second instar larvae of the new host in the laboratory. The host-passage isolates tended to exhibit higher infectivity to the new host than the original isolate as the number of host passages increased. Based on the time-concentration-mortality modeling, the LC20 (a lethal concentration to cause 20% mortality) on days 1-6 after exposure to spore showers was estimated as 14.7, 14.5, 9.0, 7.1, 6.0 and 5.5 spores/mm2 respectively for R0; 9.6, 5.0, 4.2, 3.6, 3.1 and 3.0 spores/mm2 for R1; 4.6, 2.9, 2.8, 2.5, 24 and 2.2 spores/mm2 for R3; and 5.2, 3.7, 3.2, 2.8, 2.6 and 2.6 sproes/mm2 for R5 The phenoloxidase activities were significantly lower in the larval hemolymph stimulated by the infection of the host-passage isolates. There was also a positive correlation between the log10 (LC20) and the detected phenoloxidase activities among the isolates (0.85<r2<0.95). Apparently, the increased infectivity to the new host may result from an ability of the original Z. radicans isolate to avoid or overcome its immune defense in the course of the repeated new host passages.
    Cloning and sequencing of the 5'untranslation region of Ectropis oblique picornavirus with a comparison to that of mammalian picornaviruses
    WANG Xiao-Chun1,2, ZHANG Jia-Min1, JIANG Hong1, YU Hai-Yang1, TAN-Li1, HU Yuan-Yang1*
    2004, 47(5):  573-578. 
    Abstract ( 2955 )   PDF (418KB) ( 931 )     
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    After the genomic RNA was extracted from purified Ectropis oblique picornavirus (EoPV) virons with Trizol, cDNA fragments complementary to EoPV RNA were synthesized using reverse transcriptase and added poly (dT) tail. The 5′terminus was amplified by two step PCR. After being cloned and sequenced, the 5′UTR of EoPV was compared with that of mammalian picornaviruses. Like the 5′UTRs of mammalian picornaviruses, the 5′UTR of EoPV was rich in A/T, and had many AUG and small cistrons positioned upstream from the authentic initiation codon. The second structure of 5′UTR of EoPV was predicted with the mfold software. There were 4 stem loops, and conserved motifs of mammalian IRESs, including stemloop A, loop B (A/C rich) and polypyrimidine tract. Based on the characteristics of 5′UTR of EoPV, the genome was suggested to be translated with IRES mechanism.
    Characterization and comparison of general esterases from two field populations of the grasshopper Oxya chinensis (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea)
    YANG Mei-Ling, WU Hai-Hua, GUO Ya-Ping, MA En-Bo*
    2004, 47(5):  579-585. 
    Abstract ( 2727 )   PDF (395KB) ( 907 )     
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    Malathion susceptibility in the two populations of the grasshopper Oxya chinensis, collected from Linyi of Shanxi Province and Xuzhou of Jiangsu Province, China, was determined. General esterases from the two populations were characterized and compared. LD50 of the Xuzhou population (13.00 μg/g body weight) was 2.80-fold higher than that of the Linyi population (4.64 μg/g body weight). Inhibition studies of general esterases using four inhibitors, including paraoxon, malaoxon, eserine, and carbaryl, indicated that most general esterases In the two populations were B-type. Kinetic studies showed that the Michaelis Menten constant (Km) and the maximal velocity (Vmax) of general esterases from the Xuzhou population were higher than that from the Linyi population, using α-naphthyl acetate (α-NA), α-naphthyl butyrate (α-NB), β-naphthyl acetate (β-NA) as substrates. The esterase activities in females of the Xuzhou population were 2.02, 1.58, and 1.28-fold higher than those of the Linyi population, using α-NA, α-NB and β-NA as substrates, respectively, and in males they were 2.71, 1.67, and 1.33-fold higher in the Xuzhou population than in the Linyi population. The spectrum of esterase activities showed that O. chinensis individuals with high esterase activities were more in the Xuzhou population than those in the Linyi population using the three selected substrates. We speculated that esterases in the Xuzhou population may be biochemically different from those in the Linyi population, and it might be attributed to the different geographic distributions, ecological environment and nutrition resources in the two localities. In addition, the biochemical differences might also be due to the difference in insecticides selective pressure on the two populations of O. chinensis.
    Neurotoxic action of the Cry3A toxin on the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, with permethrin as a comparison
    LIU Xian-Jin1, YU Xiang-Yang1, ZHANG Cun-Zheng1, Casey W. HOY2
    2004, 47(5):  586-590. 
    Abstract ( 2391 )   PDF (326KB) ( 1052 )     
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    Spontaneous discharges of action potentials (AP) of neuromuscular preparations in the leg and fore- or mid-gut of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata were recorded in situ under the treatment of oral injection of Cry3A toxin and permethrin insecticide. Both of the two chemicals exhibited rather specific electrophysiological symptoms in the preparations: they evoked groups of action potentials with highly increased frequencies in the early stage, and led to long period of interspike resting, the duration of which increased as intoxication proceeded. Permethrin typically caused extremely high frequency discharges (overshooting) in the leg preparations and very short interspike resting periods, but the Cry3A toxin only exhibited these effects in the gut preparations. Also Cry3A toxin increased excretion dramatically and decreased feeding of the treated beetles. These results indicated that the nerve muscle system in the gut appears to be much more sensitive to Cry3A toxin than that in the leg and the primary neurotoxic or myotoxic action of Cry3A, causing a disturbance of the gut activity, is an important mechanism of its insect poisoning consequence.
    Establishment of the near isogenic line strain resistant to lambdacyhalothrin in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    MU Wei1,2, WU Kong-Ming1*, ZHANG Wen-Ji3, GUO Yu-Yuan1
    2004, 47(5):  591-594. 
    Abstract ( 2642 )   PDF (420KB) ( 907 )     
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    The lambda-cyhalothrin resistant males and susceptible females in Spodoptera exigua were crossed in the laboratory. The 4th-instar larvae derived from the F2 inbred progeny were treated with the dose of 50 μg/mL of lambda-cyhalothrin, and survivors were taken into the second selection at the dose of 250 μg/mL in the following day. The survival adults () after the second selection were backcrossed with the susceptible adults (♀),and their inbred progeny was selected with a similar method until the near isogenic line (NIL) strain resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin were established after the process was repeated 6 times. During the establishment process of the NIL strain, the resistance level and biological parameters in every generation were assayed. The results indicated that resistance level to lambda-cyhalothrin of NIL-RR (resistant strain) had no significant decrease compared to the parent resistant strain. Esterase analysis to the 4thinstar larvae of the susceptible, resistant and NIL-RR strains showed that the pattern of esterase band of NIL-RR was similar to that of parent susceptible strain, but significantly different with the parent resistant.
    The economic threshold for control of the major species of grasshoppers on Inner Mongolian rangeland
    QIU Xing-Hui, KANG Le, LI Hong-Chang
    2004, 47(5):  595-598. 
    Abstract ( 2915 )   PDF (276KB) ( 1037 )     
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    Grasshoppers are the most important invertebrate pests on rangelands in the Inner Mongolia, where control should be initiated in most regions. A reasonable economic threshold for grasshopper control is essential to the judicious deployment of insecticidal control and thus crucial to the success of integrated pest management. According to the daily food consumption assessed in semi-natural condition and the average longevity of nymphal instars and of adult calculated based on field population sampling data of five major species of grasshoppers, the economic thresholds (3rd instar, individuals/m2) for controlling these grasshoppers by insecticide (malathion) on Inner Mongolian Steppe were suggested, i.e. 22.7 for Dasyhippus barbipes, 37.4 for Aeropedellus variegates minutus, 16.9 for Oedaleus asiaticus, 34.3 for Myrmeleotettix palpalis, and 36.7 for Chorthippus dubius.
    Immigration of the 1999 outbreak populations of the meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) into the northeastern part of China
    CHEN Xiao1,5, CHEN Ji-Guang1, XUE Yu2, HAO Li-Ping3, ZHANG You4, ZHAO Kui-Jun5
    2004, 47(5):  599-606. 
    Abstract ( 2650 )   PDF (463KB) ( 1065 )     
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    The meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis L. is an important migratory pest in North China, but its exact overwintering area and migratory path are still not clear. We analyzed the weather background during the major immigration period in 1999, and stimulated temporal-spatial dynamics of wind field and migration trajectories of the meadow moth. The results indicated that only little part of meadow moth population in the northeast of China in 1999 immigrated from “the main occurrence source area" as that people considered before, most of t he population should immigrate from the east part of Mongolia and bordering areas of China and Mongolia. The results also showed that cyclone system had notable effect on migration of the meadow moth. So the appearance and enhancement of low pressure or vortex could be a pre-warning indicator for the immigration of outbreak populations of the me adow moth in the northeast of China.
    Performances of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acarina: Tetranychidae) on various citrus varieties
    LEI Hui-De, HU Jun-Hua, LI Hong-Jun, RAN Chun, ZHANG Quan-Bing, LIN Bang-Mao, TIAN Wen-Hua, QIAN Ke-Ming
    2004, 47(5):  607-611. 
    Abstract ( 3140 )   PDF (269KB) ( 1143 )     
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    The development and population dynamics of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) on 14 citrus varieties were studied by methods of filed test, laboratory experiment, life-tables and reproduction ability. The results indicated that there were significant differences in population density of the mite on different citrus varieties, with that on Beibei 447 sweet orange, Taiwan bampeiyu pummelo and Diangjiang white-flesh pummelo higher, and that on Ponkan NL the lowest. There were also notable discrepancies in the developmental duration, female adult longevity, egg production and other examined parameters of the mite on different varieties in the laboratory: the female adult longevity was the longest on Taiwan bampeiyu pummelo, second longest on Diangjiang white-flesh pummelo, the shortest on Ponkan NL; the egg production was the highest on Taiwan bampeiyupummelo, second highest on Diangjiang white-flesh pummelo and Wubu red flesh pummelo, the lowest on Ponkan NL; and the innate capacity of increase (rm) was the biggest on Diangjiang white-flesh pummelo, second biggest on Shatian pummelo and Taiwan bampeiyupummelo, the smallest on Jin Dan. Judged with the life parameters of the experimental populations of the mite, Jin Dan and Ponkan NL were citrus varieties resistant to the mite, while Taiwan bampeiyu pummelo, Diangjiang white-flesh pummeloand Beibei 447 sweet orange were susceptible to the mite. Considered in larger groups, pummelo varieties and Beibei 447 as sweet orange varieties were more susceptible to the mite; Jin Dan as Fortunella varieties and Ponkan NL as mandarin varieties were less susceptible to the mite; other varieties were moderate in resistance. Between sweet orange varieties and mandarin varieties, the former showed high susceptibility to the mite, while the latter except Zaojin Wase showed low susceptibility.
    Preference of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera:Aleyrodidae) to four vegetable hosts
    YANG Zhong-Xia1,2, MA Chun-Sen1*, WANG Xiao-Qi2, LONG Hou-Ru1, LIU Xiao-Ying1, YANG Xiu1
    2004, 47(5):  612-617. 
    Abstract ( 3342 )   PDF (345KB) ( 888 )     
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    To explore the feasibility to control the tobacco whitefly (TWF), Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) using repellent properties of plant, three experiments were conducted under various conditions: (1) The host preference of B. tabaci among cucumber Cucumis sativus L., cauliflower Brassica oleracea L., rape Brassica campestris L. and lettuce Lactuca sativa L. was tested; (2) To evaluate effects of phytochemicals on the host preference, juice of the favorable and unfavorable hosts were mutually sprayed onto each other; (3) Effect of intercropping patterns on host preference of B. tabaci was evaluated. The results showed that B. tabaci preferred cauliflower most, followed by cucumber, cole and lettuce. Spraying various concentrations of plant juice significantly affected the host preference of B. Tabaci. Spraying original juice of lettuce onto cauliflower leaves reduced densities of B. tabaci adults and eggs by 79.6% and 84.3%, respectively. Spraying original juice of lettuce onto cucumber plants reduced adult population by 87.4%, while spraying original juice of cauliflower seedlings onto lettuce leaves increased densities of B. tabaci adults and eggs by 82.4% and 79.2%, respectively. The results indicate that phytochemicals in vegetable plants play an important role in host preference of B. tabaci. By intercropping cucumber with auliflower, the number of B. tabaci adults on cucumber leaves was reduced by 76.5% compared with the control of mono cultural cucumber. By intercropping cucumber with lettuce, the number of B. tabaci adults on cucumber leaves was reduced by 69.7% compared with the control. The potential to control the whitefly on cucumber by spraying vegetable juice and intercropping was discussed.
    Interrelations of bee visitation and floral features in alfalfa
    JIANG Hua1,2, BI Yu-Fen2*, ZHOU He, HE Cheng-Gang3
    2004, 47(5):  618-623. 
    Abstract ( 2841 )   PDF (289KB) ( 1013 )     
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    Alfalfa is a plant of strict allogamy, and its pollination relies mainly on bees. The author studied the relationship between the number of visiting bees and floral features, such as calyx diameter, coronary length, number of flowers per m2, nectar amount, components of sugar and so on, in ten varieties of alfalfa. The results showed the significance order of floral features affecting the number of visiting bees was that the nectar amount per m2 (r=0.93,P<0.01) was in the first place, followed by the number of flowers per m2 (r=0.92,P<0.01), sucrose content of nectar sugar (r=0.82,P<0.05), coronary length (r=0.77,P<0.05) and nectar amount (r=0.71,P<0.05). The results of the cluster analysis showed that although the alfalfa varieties were classified into different sub-groups based on floral features in ten varieties of alfalfa or the number of visiting bees, but they could be classified into the same two higher groups: one consisted of Algonquin, Shanbei, L173, Wl323 and Ladak, and the other consisted of Sanditi, Defa, Sitel, Prime and Derby. It was concluded that flower size was the most important feature in affecting bee visitation, followed by nectar production and flower color.
    Life history, oviposition and feeding behavior of Hylobitelus xiaoi Zhang (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    WEN Xiao-Sui1, KUANG Yuan-Yu1, SHI Ming-Qing1, LUO Yong-Song2, DENG Rong-Lin3, SUN Jiang-Hua4
    2004, 47(5):  624-629. 
    Abstract ( 2908 )   PDF (363KB) ( 1023 )     
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    Hylobitelus xiaoi Zhang is a newly breaking out pest attacking exotic pines with larvae feeding on the inner bark of both lower parts of tree trunks and root collar area. This species required two years to complete one generation in southern Jiangxi, with overwintering by adults in pupal chambers and soil and by larvae in galleries in the bark of host trees. Thermal threshold for development was 8.4℃ for egg and 7.5℃ for pupa. Thermal sum for development was 215.9 day-degrees for egg and 345.3 day-degrees for pupa. Between 13-28℃, the developmental duration was 52.9-11.4 days for egg stage, 60.1-16.4 days for pupal stage between 13-30℃. Larval development lasted for 128.9 days at temperature of 25℃. Adult flight ability was very limited and mainly moved by walking. They became active at night, climbing up trees around sunset and returning to the tree base in the following morning. Adults fed on the inner bark of host branches. Average feeding lasted about 46.3 days before reaching reproductive maturity. Oviposition period was 105.3 days. He eggs were deposited in the outer bark of the stem near the ground. The average fecundity per female was 35.7 eggs. There were five to seven larval instars. Young pine plantations, especially slash pine, were very susceptible to larval attack.
    Studies on the chromosomes of forty-five leafhopper species (Homoptera: Cicadelloidea) in China
    TIAN Run-Gang1, ZHANG Ya-Lin2*, YUAN Feng2
    2004, 47(5):  630-638. 
    Abstract ( 2967 )   PDF (5462KB) ( 973 )     
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    The present paper deals with meiosis and chromosomes in 45 species of Chinese leafhoppers, among which 44 species are cytologically studied for the first time. Chromosome numbers vary from 2n=12 to 26, and sex determination is XO type in all species. Chromosomal histogram of Cicadelloidea shows that chromosome number vary from 2n=8 to 28, the predominant type is 2n=18(16+XO), and other types such as 2n=16, 20 and 22 are also very common. Positive trend on chromosome number evolution was not found, and 2n=22(20+XO) is suggested to be initial karyotype. Unequal exchange between homologous chromosomes induced by translocation is the main mechanism of karyotype evolution. Male meiosis indicates that the relationship between Cicadelloidea and Membracoidea is very close, and they share the following characteristics: ①volume of spermatocytes is bigger than that in Cercopoidea and Cicadoidea; ② chromosome behaviors during meiosis are similar; ③fewer chromosomes but with bigger volume; ④differing from Fulgoroidea, meiosis prophase Ⅰ has typical bouquet stage but without diffuse stage. It is suggested that Membracoidea, are more primitive than Cicadelloidea, since chromosome numbers are much varied in Cicadello Idea but conservative in Membracoidea.
    Application of species-specific primers to molecular identification of three important Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in China
    GENG Jin-Hu, LI Zheng-Xi, SHEN Zuo-Rui
    2004, 47(5):  639-644. 
    Abstract ( 2512 )   PDF (805KB) ( 928 )     
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    Species-specific primers of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii has been designed based on its rDNA-ITS2 sequence in this paper, and the specific primers of T. Dendrolimi Matsumura, T. ostriniae Pang et Chen and the genus Trichogramma were retrieved from previously published articles. All of the specific primers were then applied to identification of multiple Trichogramma and host eggs samples through PCR assays. The results showed that our methods could produce clear, unique and reproducible target DNA bands from individual adult wasp. Furthermore, the species-specific primer-based results were fully consistent with those derived from morphology-based ones. Thus, the molecular identification of the three important Trichogramma species in China, namely T. dendrolimi, T. chilonis and T. ostriniae, using the abovedescribed diagnostic primers was proved feasible.
    Distinction between termite-induced piping in dykes and that caused by physical factors, and its treatment
    LI Dong1, TIAN Wei-Jin1, LI Ming1, CHEN Li-Ling1, MENG QI-Zhi1, MAO Wei-Guang2, LI Zhi-Ping2, HUANG Jian-Ping3
    2004, 47(5):  645-651. 
    Abstract ( 2980 )   PDF (5037KB) ( 924 )     
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    Piping in dykes can be caused by termite or other physical means, but technical personnel of water conservancy often confused them and called both as water conservancy piping in treatment. Based on a large number of observations, this paper discussed the distinction between the two types of piping, and different treatments that should be taken so as to prevent the collapse of dykes and dams. The termite-induced piping must be recognized as the biological occurrence and should be treated as such so that the dangerous situation of this piping can be avoided.
    Neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating locust phase polymorphism
    WANG Fang-Hai, LIU Yong-Ping, ZHANG Qiong-Xiu, CHEN Hui-Qing, LI Guang-Hong
    2004, 47(5):  652-658. 
    Abstract ( 3784 )   PDF (518KB) ( 860 )     
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    There are two phases for locusts, solitary and gregarious. The plague of locusts is usually led by the gregarious locusts. Many studies have been devoted to find the key factor regulating phase transformation in order to control the plague of locusts in recent years. This paper summarizes the physiological mechanism of locust phase polymorphisms from the aspect of neuroendocrine and reviews the main effects and mechanisms of juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids and [His7]-corazonin on locust phase polymorphism in detail.
    The relationships between the structure and function of insect antibacterial peptides and antifungal peptides and molecular design
    XIAO Ye-Chen1,4, WEN Shuo-Yang2, HUANG Ya-Dong3, YANG Wan-Ying1 , CAO Yang1
    2004, 47(5):  659-669. 
    Abstract ( 2849 )   PDF (697KB) ( 1160 )     
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    Insect antimicrobial peptides (AMP), including antibacterial peptides and antifungal peptides (AFP), are classified based on the accession sequences registered in GenBank and EMBL databases, and the relationships between the molecular structure and function of cecropin family and their molecular design strategies were summarized.The research progress and the challenging problems concerning the relationships between the known molecular structure and function of some newly identified antifungal peptides were introduced and analyzed. Such information will be useful not only for the basic studies of antimicrobial peptides but also for developing novel antibiotic drugs in the near future.
    Biotypes of insect pests and their genetic mechanisms
    LIU Fang, FU Qiang, LAI Feng-Xiang
    2004, 47(5):  670-678. 
    Abstract ( 4832 )   PDF (630KB) ( 2569 )     
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    The biotypes of several important pests including Mayetiola destructor, Schizaphis graminum, Nilaparvata lugens, Orseolia oryzae and Bemisia tabaci on agricultural crops were introduced, then the applications of molecular markers to the research on biotypes were generalized. The present paper stressed the reviews on inheritance and variance of biotypes of the above pests. Biotypes of M. destructor, S. graminum and O. oryzae were conditioned by major genes, and specific pest virulence-host plant resistance interactions followed a gene-for-gene relationship. The virulence of N. lugens was under polygenic control and was a quantitative character. The genetic nature of B. tabaci was less clear. Finally, some questions, such as the relationships between the genetic divergence and the virulence of biotypes were discussed.
    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in China: a review and distribution survey
    EI Xia1, Dick REARDON2, WU Yun2, SUN Jiang-Hua3*
    2004, 47(5):  679-685. 
    Abstract ( 4135 )   PDF (4398KB) ( 1103 )     
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    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic forest pest recently discovered in North America, with the infestation centered in Michigan (United States) and Ontario (Canada). A recent pest risk assessment concluded that this new pest could spread throughout the range of ash trees in North America, and pose a serious threat to all 16 species of ash growing in the region. Many ash species are important as timber, ornamental species, and as a source of food for wildlife. This beetle is native to Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, and the Russian Far East. We conducted a literature review on the distribution of this beetle in China and other Asian countries, and preliminary field surveys on its distribution and damage in the northeastern provinces of China. These reviews revealed that this beetle is present in Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Jilin provinces. EAB has also been reported in Tianjin city, Shandong and Hebei provinces, and Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia autonomous regions in China, but its distribution is not uniform, occurring mainly on a stand-by-stand basis. Information on biology and ecology of this beetle is very limited. Several ash species in the genus Fraxinus in China were attacked.
    Differential proteomic analysis of Bt Cry1Ac toxin-resistant and susceptible BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells
    JIANG Cai-Fu, LIU Kai-Yu, PENG Rong, ZHENG Jin, PENG Jian-Xin, HONG Hua-Zhu*
    2004, 47(5):  686-690. 
    Abstract ( 2716 )   PDF (678KB) ( 1023 )     
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    The proteomic difference between the resistant BTI-Tn-5B1-4 selected by Bt Cry1Ac and the susceptible cell from the same cell clone was compared using dielectrophoresis (2-DE) and peptide mass fingerprint technology. 707±25 dots (n=3) were detected on the resistant cell's proteomic 2-DE map, and 637±19 (n=3)on the susceptible cell's proteomic 2-DE map with Melanie Viewer Ⅱ software. More than ten unmatched dots with good repetition and high resolution have been detected. One differential dot with good repetition on the susceptible cell's 2-DE map was measured using the peptide mass fingerprint technology and searched in the SWISS-PROT database, and the results showed that the protein was homologous with the periplasmic protein .
    The influences of different factors in extraction on antibacterial activity of protein crude extracts in housefly larvae
    AN Chun-Ju, GENG Hua, HAO You-Jin, LI De-Sen, DU Rong-Qian*
    2004, 47(5):  691-693. 
    Abstract ( 2354 )   PDF (476KB) ( 1073 )     
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    The influences of different factors in extraction on the antibacterial activity of protein crude protein extracts from the induced third-instar larvae of housefly (Musca domestica) were assayed. The antibacterial activity of protein crude extracts was measured with diffusion plate assay. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of crude extracts was affected by such factors as the temperature of boiling larvae to death, the duration of boiled water bath and the pH of extraction buffer.