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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 December 2004, Volume 47 Issue 6
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    Identification and electroantennal olfactory and behavioral tests of hindgut_produced volatiles of the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)
    YAN Zheng-Liang, FANG Yu-Ling,SUN Jiang-Hua, ZHANG Zhong-Ning*
    2004, 47(6):  695-700. 
    Abstract ( 2702 )   PDF (502KB) ( 1311 )     
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    An exotic invasive pine pest, red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Scolytidae), was studied. GC-MS analysis confirmed the existence of verbenol and verbenone as well as the host volatile s (α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, myrcene and limonene) in hindguts of the beetle. Verbenol, verbenone and 3-(+)-carene, the most effective attractant in field test, all elicited electroantennal responses in EAG (electroantennogram) test. Indoor olfactory tests with a Y-type tube were conducted. Verbenone was attractive to D. valens at 1 μL/mL, and its effect could parallel that of 3-carene; however, 100 μL/mL of verbenone was somehow repellent to th e beetle. Verbenol was repellent to D. valens in all dosages.
    Association of moisture content in mulberry leaf with nutritional parameters of bivoltine silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)
    2004, 47(6):  701-704. 
    Abstract ( 2895 )   PDF (276KB) ( 2600 )     
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    The effect of feeding mulberry leaves with different mois ture contents on the 5th instar bivoltine silkworm (CSR3×CSR6) was studied. For this purpose tender leaves (with moisture 80%-85%), medium leaves (with moisture 65%-70%) and mature leaves (with moisture 55%-60%) were provided to silkworm. The growth, nutritional indices and nutritional efficiency parameters were studied and worked out by standard gravimetric procedure. The results indicated that nutritional parameters like ingesta, digesta, approximate digestibility, reference ratio and consumption index were recorded significantly higher in batches fed with higher moisture content leaves. Similarly, nutritional efficiency parameters like conversion efficiency of ingested and digested food into larvae, cocoon and shell were recorded significantly higher in batches fed with higher moisture content leaves. However, there was no significant difference observed between treatments in the case efficiency of conversion of digested food into shell and digesta required to produce one gram of shell.
    Effects of rhodojaponins from Rhododendron molle on cuticle components of Spodoptera litura larvae and their structure-activity relationship
    ZHONG Guo-Hua, LIU Jin-Xiang, GUAN Shan, XIE Jian-Jun, HU Mei-Ying*
    2004, 47(6):  705-714. 
    Abstract ( 3598 )   PDF (465KB) ( 1420 )     
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    The effects of fourteen active compounds previously isolated from Rhododendron molle G. Don on the cuticle components of Spodoptera litura larvae and their structure-activity relationship were studied to illustrate the mode of action and optimize rhodojaponins structure. The structures of three new compounds, rhodomolin A, B and C, were elucidated based on IR,UV,NMR and MS spectroscopic data. When the fourth instar larvae of S. Litura were treated with 50 mg/L of compounds rhodojaponin Ⅲ, rhodomolin A,rhodomollein Ⅰ,rhodomolin B,rhodomolin C,rhodomollein ⅩⅧ, grayantoxin Ⅲ and azadirachtin, an known botanical insect growth regulator, respectively, the weight of larvae and pupae and the emergence rate were significantly less than CK, which showed greater insect growth inhibition activities than other tested compounds from R. molle. After 120 h treatment, all the cuticle chitin contents of larvae, both treated with compounds and CK, were 28.15% -35.18%, which show no significant difference. When treated with compounds rhodojaponin Ⅲ, rhodomolin A, rhodomolin B, rhodomolin C, rhodomollein ⅩⅧ and azadirachtin, however, the contents of total protein of larvae cuticle significantly increased and those of total fats decreased than those of CK, respectively. Furthermore, the contents of water soluble protein, hydrogen bond combined prote in and covalent bond combined protein in the cuticle decreased significantly, while the content of weak bond combined protein increased significantly and the content of electrovalence bond combined protein was not significantly different from that of CK when larvae were treated with compound rhodojaponin Ⅲ and azadirachtin. It was inferred that the action mode of insect growth inhibition in rhodoja ponins is not to inhibit chitin syntheses, but to disturb internal secretion, and significantly decreasing the content of water soluble protein in cuticle would be one important mechanism. Preliminary analysis of their structure-activity relationship showed that substitute group structures of C-2,3-epoxy, C-6, C-10 and C-14 were most important to these grayanoid diterpenids with insect growth inhibition activity. The difference of model of inhibition action between rhodojaponins and azadirachtin was also discussed.
    Effect of morphine in rabbit tissues on growth of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and its implication for estimation of postmortem intervals
    TIAN Jie1,2, ZHANG Meng-Yu1*, HE Bin3, LI Ze-Min, WANG Bo-Xia
    2004, 47(6):  715-718. 
    Abstract ( 3069 )   PDF (167KB) ( 1322 )     
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    Rabbits were injected with morphine hydrochloride. After the rabbits were killed, their different tissues were used to feed the newly-hatched larvae of Chrysomya megacephala. The effect of morphine of different doses on the growth of larvae and its implication for the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) were studied. The deviation of PMI estimation based on larvae growth was calculated. The results showed that at 28℃, starting at 28 h during the growth-circle the lengths and weights of larvae that fed on the muscles and livers of the rabbits injected with morphine hydrochloride were larger than those from the control in different extents and this trend continued into the late phase of larvae growth-circle. Within the range of morphine doses designed for this experiment (2.67-10.66 mg/kg), morphine could accelerate the growth of larvae. Morphine could result in a maximum PMI deviation of 18 hours when the growth rates of the larvae was used to judge PMI.
    Leg regeneration in Eupolyphaga sinensis (Blattodea: Corydiidae)
    TAN Liang-Fei, ZHU Fen, LIU Jing, ZHOU Xing-Miao, LEI Chao-Liang*
    2004, 47(6):  719-724. 
    Abstract ( 2829 )   PDF (1307KB) ( 1002 )     
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    Leg regeneration was found in Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker. The characteristics of the regeneration were examined. The results showed that nymphs at all the instars had regeneration ability and legs amputated at any site could regenerate. Regenerated legs could be amputated and regenerate again. Tarsus of the regenerated leg was one segment less than the normal tarsus, which had five segments. If two femurs matched were amputated, the regenerated legs usually developed uncompleted, and one regenerated leg was larger than the other. Generally, the regenerated legs were in smaller size and lighter color. But the growth rate of the regenerated legs was faster. Legs amputated from femur and tarsus, if regeneration occurred, could grow back to the normal size after two rounds of ecdysis.
    Ultrastructure of spermatheca in the grasshopper Oedaleus infernalis Saussure (Orthoptera:Acrididae)
    HE Jian-Ping, XI Geng-Si, REN Yao-Hui
    2004, 47(6):  725-731. 
    Abstract ( 3352 )   PDF (7224KB) ( 929 )     
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    Microstructure and ultrastructure of the spermatheca of g rasshopper Oedaleus infernalis Saussure (Orthoptera: Acridoidae ) were investigated with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The unpaired spermatheca can be subdivided into a multiple coiled tube and a bean-shaped terminalsac. The spermathecal wall from inside to outside consists of cuticula intima, epithelium layer, basal lamina and muscle layer. The epithelium layer is comprised of a layer of epithelial cells with a distinct apical microvilli border, a layer of ductule cells and gland cells, with the epithelial cells heavily intercalated with one another and slender projections extending between the ductule cell and the gland cell to basal lamina and folded. The basal plasma membrane of gland cell and epithelial cells form a huge labyrinth through extensive folding. The ductule cell transports secretion of gland cell. The gland cells show structures typical for secretion cell: ER, Golgi body and different size vesicles. Every gland cell contains a cellular cavity, which is coated with a microvilli border and connected with secretion ductules. By secretion ductules , the cellular cavity was connected with spermathecal lumen. In the outer layer is muscle layer attached to basal lamina. There are differences of structure in terminal sac and tube regions. Significant differences in ultrastructure of spermathecal gland cell before and after copulation were observed.
    Infection of the endosymbiont Wolbachia in population of Trichogramma evanescens in China
    ZHONG Min, SHEN Zuo-Rui*
    2004, 47(6):  732-737. 
    Abstract ( 2697 )   PDF (1830KB) ( 1242 )     
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    Wolbachia, belonging to α-Proteobacteria, is a commonly widespread group of intracellular symbiotic bacteria found in reproductive tissues of arthropods. The bacteria may spread in host populations through regulation of host reproduction. In this study, the presenc e of Wolbachia was detected in a natural population of Trichogramma evanescens in China based on the wsp gene cloning and PCR-RFLP analysis. Two wsp genes of Wolbachia infecting T. evanescens were amplified and se quenced, with their GenBank accession numbers as AY390279 and AY390280 Also two new Wolbachia strains were identified and named as wEvaA and wEvaB. Through constructing and analysing the phylogenic tree of Wolbachia strains in Trichogramma spp. Based on wsp gene, we found these two strains belonged to A group.
    Sequencing and sequence analysis of the wsp gene of Wolbachia in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae)
    MIAO Hui, HONG Xiao-Yue*, XIE Lin, XUE Xiao-Feng
    2004, 47(6):  738-743. 
    Abstract ( 2880 )   PDF (442KB) ( 1117 )     
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    Specific primers derived from the wsp gene sequence were used to amplify DNA of Wolbachia from seven populations of Tetranychus cinnabarinus in China by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The wsp characteristic 596 bp products were observed after amplification of extracts from four geographical populations (Jiamusi population of Heilongjiang Province, Anqing population of Anhui Province, Zhenjiang population of Jiangsu Province and Cixi population of Zhejiang Province) of T. cinnabarinus, but in other three populations (Weixian population of Hebei Province, Binzhou population of Shandong Province and Chibi population of Hubei Province) this gene was not found. The results showed that the infection of Wolbachia is widespread in T. cinnabarinus in China. By analyzing the wsp gene sequences of Wolbachia in T. Cinnabarinus through constituting the phylogenetical tree, we found that they were similar to or completely identical with the wsp gene sequence of some strains of Ori group in B supergroup of Wolbachia, and this indicates that they may be the same strain of Wolbachia or at least they are closed-related sister strains.
    Effects of four detergents on solubilization and denaturation of microsomal cytochrome P450s in Helicoverpa armigera
    ZHENG Ming-Qi1,2,ZHANG Wen-Ji1, QIU Xing-Hui2*, LENG Xin-Fu2, HE Feng-Qin2, LI Mei2
    2004, 47(6):  744-748. 
    Abstract ( 2558 )   PDF (274KB) ( 996 )     
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    To facilitate the separation and purification of cytochrome P450s in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, the effects of 4 detergents on the solubilization and denaturation of microsomal P450s from this pest were examined. The results showed that CHAPS efficiently solubilized the microsomal P450 of midgut and fatbody, while Lubrol PX, Emulgen 911 and sodium cholate were less efficient. The suitable solubilization concentrations of CHAPS for microsomal P450s of midgut and fatbody were 0.5% and 0.5%-0.8% respec tively. Denaturation effects of CHAPS, Lubrol PX, Emulgen 911 and sodium cholat eat the concentration 0.5% on microsomal cytochrome P450s of midgut and fatbody were insignificant.
    Genetic analysis of resistance to buprofezin in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)
    ZHUANG Yong-Lin, SHEN Jin-Liang, DAI De-Jiang, ZHOU Wei-Jun
    2004, 47(6):  749-753. 
    Abstract ( 2819 )   PDF (322KB) ( 1277 )     
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    The inheritance of pest-insect's resistance to insecticide is not only an important factor affecting the development of resistance but also the basis for formulating resistance management strategy. The inheritance of resistance to buprofezin in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal),was studied through assaying dose-response data of the third nymhs of resistant® and susceptible(S) parents, reciprocal crosses (F1 and F'1), self-bred (F2 and F'2) and backcross (BC) progenies to buprofezin with the rice-stem dipping method. The results showed that the main resistant gene was autosomal and incompletely recessive, with degree of dominance (D) -0.3153 (F1) and -0.3763 (F'1); the chi-square analysis results of the dose-response data of F2, F'2 and BC pr ogeny was 42.11, 51.44 and 93.57 respectively, all higher than χ2 0.05=15.51(df=8), indicated that buprofezin resistance in the brown planthopper appears to be controlled by two or more genes. The resistance management tactics of N. lugens to buprofezin is also discuss ed here.
    Genetic differentiation in the thiamethoxam-resistant strain of Bemisia tabaci B-biotype
    ZHANG Li-Ping1,2,3, ZHANG You-Jun2*, ZHANG Wen-Ji1, XU Bao-Yun2, WU Qing-Jun2, XIAO Li-Feng2, ZHU Guo-Ren2
    2004, 47(6):  754-759. 
    Abstract ( 2518 )   PDF (485KB) ( 978 )     
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    The genetic differentiation in the thiamethoxam-resistant strain of the B-biotype Bemisia tabaci was investigated by the method of AFLP marker. Then a dendrogram was constructed from the matrix of genetic distances using the STATISTICA software (4.5 version) and UPGMA (Unweighte d Pair-Group Method using the Arithmetic Averages). A significant genetic differentiation was found between the resistant and susceptive strains of Bemisia tabaci. Additionally, characteristic amplified DNA fragments, the fragment 150 bp for resistant strain and the fragment 315 bp for susceptive strain were identified using the EcoRⅠ+ACT/RMseRⅠ+CTG primer, which may serve to develop molecular detection of Bemisia tabaci resistance to thiamethoxam.
    Host-preference biotypes of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover and the behavioral mechanism in their formation
    WANG Yong-Miao, ZHANG Peng-Fei, CHEN Jian-Qun
    2004, 47(6):  760-767. 
    Abstract ( 2801 )   PDF (543KB) ( 1088 )     
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    The colonization and feeding behavior of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, on melon and cotton plants were studied in order to reveal the behavioral mechanism in formation of different host-preference biotypes. The results of the biological observation showed the number of colonizing aphids decreased significantly when they were transferred to their non-preference plant (melon or cotton). Moreover, both population reproduction coefficient and the nymphal survival rate were also significantly declined when aphids living on cotton were transferred to melon. These data suggested there were two host-preference bio types in the aphid A. gossypii, the melon biotype and the cotton biotype. Based on the comparisons of feeding behavior between these two host biotypes using electrical penetration graph (EPG), the feeding characteristics of the two host biotypes of cotton aphids on their non-preference host were found as following: (1) The feeding behavior of the melon biotype aphids was interrupted easily on the cotton, but the ability that aphid stylet locating cotton phloem was not affected by frequent interruption in the pathway penetration; (2) The feeding behavior of the cotton biotye aphids was affected so greatly on the melon that the aphids could not locate the melon phloem and feed at the sieve element within 2 hours. The biological observation and EPG feeding behavior record of these two host biotypes both suggested that the cotton biotype aphid had stricter requirement for its host plant and used the host plant more efficiently than melon biotype aphid . These findings may give clues to explain why the aphids living on the cotton and melon respectively could not successfully transfer hostplants mutually.
    Differentiation in morphometrics and ecological adaptability of cotton and cucumber biotypes of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae)
    LIU Xiang-Dong,ZHAI Bao-Ping,ZHANG Xiao-Xi,LU Yang
    2004, 47(6):  768-773. 
    Abstract ( 2824 )   PDF (380KB) ( 1445 )     
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    The cotton aphid populations are differentiated in food utility, and the host fidelity has been found all over the world. The morphometric differentiation and ecological adaptabilities of cotton and cucumber biotype aphids were studied used such methods as morphometric analysis, life table, host selection test, and stimulating aphid with a needle. The results showed that the examined morphometric values of the cucumber biotype aphid were significantly higher than that of the cotton biotype aphid, but the ratios of head width, stylet and the femur to body length of the cucumber biotype aphid were significantly lower than that of the cotton biotype aphid. The cucumber and cotton biotype aphids could be distinguished through the discrimination analysis with the indices such as the relative lengths of head, abdomen tube, stylet, femur length of fore-, mid- and hind-leg, and the 3rd segment of antenna to body length. The net reproductive rate of the cucumber biotype aphid reared at 24℃ and 26℃ was significant higher than that of the cotton biotype aphid, but the mean length of a generation was significantly shorter at 27℃ and 32℃. This suggested that the relative lower temperature was more suitable to the cucumber biotype aphid for development and reproduction, and the relative higher temperature was more suitable to the cotton biotype aphid. The response of the cotton biotype aphid to the touch with a little needle was slightly stronger than that of the cucumber biotype aphid. The capacity of the cucumber aphid to orient and select host plant was higher than that of the cotton biotype aphid. The results indicated that the morphometrics and ecological adaptability of the cotton and cucumber biotypes were differentiated
    Growth, development and reproduction of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) reared on milky grains of wheat grown in elevated CO2 concentration
    CHEN Fa-Jun, WU Gang, GE Feng*
    2004, 47(6):  774-779. 
    Abstract ( 2674 )   PDF (384KB) ( 1048 )     
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    Impacts of the rising CO2 concentration atmosphere on growth, development, reproduction and nutritional efficiency of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) reared on spring wheat in the cotton region of Northern China were studied through laboratory experiment with collected milky grains (as diets) from spring wheat grown in 370 Μl/L CO2 treatment (factually 382.4±24.8) and 750 Μl/L CO2 treatment (factually 738.8±25.7) in open-top chambers. The results indicated: (1) As reared on grains of elevated CO2 grown spring wheat, the larvae of cotton bollworm fed more grains and produced more frass. Compared with CK, food ingestion and frass produced by bollworm larvae increased by 46.3% P<0.05) and 37.8% respectively. (2) Elevated CO2 affected the nutritional constitutes of grains. Significant increases were found in soluble protein, free amino acids, glucose, amylase, TSCs and ratio of TSCs: GP (gross protein) and significant decreases in fructose and gross protein compared to CK. (3) The changes in grain nutritional constitutes owing to elevated CO2 influenced the diet utilization efficiency of bollworm larvae. Decreases were found in efficiency of conversation of ingested food (ECI) and digested food (ECD) of bollworm larvae fed on grains of elevated CO2 grown spring wheat by 27.2% and 25.4% respectively, and significant (P<0.05) increase in relative consumption rate (RCR ) by 58.8% compared with those of larvae fed on grains of ambient CO2 grown spring wheat. So elevated CO2 may cause adverse impacts on nutritional values of milky grains for the development and growth of cotton bollworm, H. armigera, and the larvae may consume more wheat grains and cause in heavier damage in the rising CO2 concentration atmosphere in future.
    Changes in the protective enzyme activities of cotton plants under overcompensation for leaf removal
    LI Yue-Qiang, SHENG Cheng-Fa
    2004, 47(6):  780-786. 
    Abstract ( 2761 )   PDF (404KB) ( 1124 )     
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    The occurrence of overcompensation response of cotton plants after leaf loss and the changes in their protective enzyme system were studied. The 25% leaf removal and 50% leaf removal in standard were imposed on cotton plants respectively with scissors to simulate the process of field pest herbivory. The results showed that the 50% leaf removal could increase the yield of sound boll by 24 .4% that suggested the happening of overcompensation. The 25% leaf removal had no influence on cotton plant height and protein content in leaves, suggesting the 25% leaf removal in standard falling into the category of growth redundancy, but the climax in protein content in cotton leaves postponed about one week. The 50% leaf removal could increase the total area of plant canopy, decrease cotton plant height by 14.5% in two weeks after treatment, increasing protein content by 7 .7%, acquiring 14.1% higher peroxidases activity than the control (CK). Three days after 50% leaf removal treatment, both peroxidases specific activity and in polyphenoloxidases specific activity increased. At the time of two weeks after 50% leaf removal treatment, the specific activities of peroxidases and polyphenoloxidases were more similar to that of CK. All these indicated that the treatment of the 50% leaf removal in standard fell into the category of overcompensation.
    Fig wasps associated with Ficus semicordata: oviposition timing and their population relationship
    ZHEN Wen-Quan1,2, HUANG Da-Wei1,3*, YANG Da-Rong4, ZHU Chao-Dong1
    2004, 47(6):  787-792. 
    Abstract ( 2945 )   PDF (383KB) ( 946 )     
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    Fig/fig pollinator mutualistic systems are exploited by non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFWs). Within a syconium, pollinators and non-pollinators are interacting with each other in high-density populations. We studied 5 species in the syconia of Ficus semicordata including the pollinator Ceratosolen gravely I, and NPFWs Apocrypta sp., Philotrypesis dunia, Platyneura cunia and Sycoscapter trifemmensis. These fig wasps lay eggs into a syconium in a strict oviposition timing, for occupying the diverse niches, which reflect their different biological traits. The population size of the single non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) species hardly shows the negative correlations with pollinator' s. The total population size of all NPFWs is positively correlated to the pollinator's. It might be the evolutionary adaptation for coexistence of the many species within a syconium.
    The diversity and zonal distribution of butterflies in Shanxi Province
    CAO Tian-Wen, WANG Rui, Dong Jin-Ming, XUAN Shan-Bin, ZHAO Fei, LI Jie, ZHAO Jun-Sheng
    2004, 47(6):  793-802. 
    Abstract ( 3011 )   PDF (600KB) ( 1310 )     
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    On the basis of natural geography and vegetation, the present situatio n of butterfly diversity was studied in Shanxi. The results indicated that: in different forest regions, the diversity of butterfly had much difference and decreased progressively from south to north. Meanwhile, influenced by the microclimate environment, the butterfly resources appeared clumpy distribution. In cultivation area, the diversity of species lost seriously. Based on the distribution of 216 species of butterflies in 15 forest regions, the diversity of butterfly species was studied by UPGMA clustering analysis. The result show that 15 forest regions were divided into 5 butterfly regions when the similarity coefficient was 0.85. They were: Ⅰ. South-end mountain butterfly region; Ⅱ. South part basin butterfly region; Ⅲ.Middle-South part mountain- hill butterfly region; Ⅳ. Middle part high mountain butterfly region;Ⅴ. Northwest part hill butterfly region. According to the result of key fauna analysis, the important butterfly regions in Shanxi were Ⅰand Ⅳ. It was inferred that 97.7% butterfly species in Shanxi could be preserved when butterflies in the two butterfly regions were protected.
    Karyotypes of nineteen species of Fulgoroidea from China(Insecta: Homoptera)
    TIAN Run-Gang1, ZHANG Ya-Lin2*, YUAN Feng2
    2004, 47(6):  803-808. 
    Abstract ( 3011 )   PDF (2713KB) ( 1126 )     
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    The present paper deals with chromosome numbers, sex determination and chromosome behavior in 19 species of Chinese fulgoroids. Karyotype with 2n=28(26+XO) is suggested to be the ancestral type in Fulgoroidea. The relationship between Fulgoroidea and Hemiptera is very close because of sheathed testes and meiotic prophase Ⅰ with a typical diffuse stage in Fulgoroidea.
    Inferences about Acridoidea phylogenetic relationships fromsmall subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence
    YIN Hong1, LI Xin-Jiang1, WANG Wen-Qiang1, 2, YIN Xiang-Chu1,3*
    2004, 47(6):  809-814. 
    Abstract ( 3074 )   PDF (315KB) ( 1022 )     
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    Small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA or 18S rDNA) sequences were used to examine the phylogenetic relationships of families of Acridoidea. The SSU rDNA complete sequences (average length 1 844 bp) of the Acridoidea (include 8 families) were determined, and the homologous sequences of 8 relative species (including 6 species of Acridoidea and 2 species of Tetrigoidea) were retrieved from GenBank. The molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed with software package Clustal X (1.81), MEGA and PHYLIP using Tetrigoidea as outgroup. Based the phylogenetic trees thus obtained, we made the following conclusions: (1) The Acridoide a was supported as a monophyletic group; (2) Pyrgomorphidae and Chrotogonidae were the most ancestral groups; (3) Gomphoceridae and Arcypteridae have closer phylogenetic relationships; (4) Oedipodidae was the most evolved group; (5) The relative frequencies of the four nucleotides were approximately equal (A∶C∶G∶ T = 0.240∶0.239∶0.279∶0.242), SSU rDNA sequences were conserved and the transition ratio was higher than or approaching to the transversion ratio; (6) Different superfamilies and families were separated, the members of the same family were mostly grouped together, thus, the SSU rDNA sequences can be used as candidate nucleotide sequence for studying the phylogenetic relationships of Acridoidea .
    A review of the genus Nevskyella Ossiannilsson (Homoptera: Aphididae: Saltusaphidinae) with description of one new species
    QIAO Ge-Xia, ZHANG Guang-Xue
    2004, 47(6):  815-820. 
    Abstract ( 3891 )   PDF (412KB) ( 1221 )     
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    This paper dealt with all five species of the genus Nevskyella known or newly found in the world, i.e., N. fungifera (Ossiannilsson), N. sinensis (Zhang, Zhang and Zhong, 1995) N. tuberculata Zhang and Zhang, N. similifungifera sp. Nov., and N. eridionalis HilleRis Lambers and vanden Bosch, of which four species except N. meridionalis have distribution in China. The new combination, N. sinensis (Zhang, Zhang and Zhong, 1995) was proposed based on the enlarged foreand mid-femora and thickened bases of tibiae for leaping, lateral margins of head without setae, and outer margins of hind tibia with normal setae. The former records of N. fungifera (Ossiannilsson, 1953) in China were partly based on misidentified specimens. These isidentified specimens were here identified as one new species. Keys to species, morphological descriptions of the new species, and records of host plants, distribution and biology for all species are provided. The specimens including type specimens are deposited separately in the Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (IZAS), and the Natural History Museum, London (BMNH).
    On the validity of the class Ellipura (=Parainsecta) (Hexapoda) based on the phylogenetic relationship between Collembola and Protura
    YIN Wen-Ying*, XIE Rong-Dong, LUAN Yun-Xia
    2004, 47(6):  821-829. 
    Abstract ( 4382 )   PDF (476KB) ( 958 )     
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    According to the absence of the cerci in both Collembola and Protura, Borner in 1910 grouped them together into a class Ellipura, which has long been supported by many entomologists in the world. As Kukalova-Peck (1987) discussed about the ground plan of the appendages of a fossil Diplura (?), she concludedt hat Collembola and Protura differ in having a more primitive abdominal pleuron which does not include the trochanter, and should be classified as sister groups, (Protura+Collembola) Parainsecta. But the evidences from the comparison in morphology, internal structures, comparative spermatology, morphogenesis and post-embryonic development, as well as the data of the molecular sequences between Collembola and Protura, did not lead to a close relationship. Therefore, the grouping of Protura and Collembola together as a monophylum is not supported. The assemblage Ellipura (=Parainsecta) should be rejected.
    The structure of sodium channels and gene mutations associated with knockdown resistance in insects
    TANG Zhen-Hua1, YUAN Jian-Zhong1, ZHUANG Pei-Jun1, TAO Li-Ming2,1
    2004, 47(6):  830-836. 
    Abstract ( 2933 )   PDF (447KB) ( 1184 )     
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    Knockdown resistance (kdr) is used to describe resistance to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides that result from reduced sensitivity of the nervous system in insects and other arthropods. The voltage-sensitive sodium channels are important action targets of DDT and pyrethroids. Pyrethroids are known to exert their insecticidal effects by altering the function of these channels, and the point mutations of their genes are the primary cause for producing kdr resistance. Kdr resistance has been the subject of sustained research interest for more than 40 years, but the past decade has witnessed significant advances in the identification of the mechanisms underlying kdr resistance at the molecular level. This paper mainly reviews new advances on molecular biology of kdr resistance obtained since 1996, with emphasis on the structure of voltage-sensitive sodium channel subunit, gene mutations associated with kdr resistance among 14 species of pest arthropods and their amino acid sequence polymorphisms. These results can provide new insight into the mechanisms by which pyrethroids modify the function of voltage sodium channels.
    Progress in the techniques for construction and screening of recombinant insect baculovirus
    CAO Cui-Ping, WU Xiao-Feng
    2004, 47(6):  837-843. 
    Abstract ( 2377 )   PDF (470KB) ( 1532 )     
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    Using insect baculovirus as expression vector, various proteins have been produced successfully. But the frequency of recombination was very low (0.1%-1%) and it limited further application of the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). Many improved methods for the construction and isolation of recombinant baculo virus have been developed and are introduced here, with emphasis on linearization of baculovirus DNA and a method based on site-specific transposition of an expression cassette into a baculovirus shuttle vector propagated in E.coli.
    Application of heavy ion beams radio-surgery to function analysis of insect specific organ
    TU Zhen-Li1, KOBAYASHI Yasuhiko2, KIGUCHI Kenji3
    2004, 47(6):  844-848. 
    Abstract ( 2355 )   PDF (1005KB) ( 1018 )     
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    To test the validity of radio-surgery of heavy ion beams, which inactivate a specific organ through local irradiation, silkworms (Bombyx mori) were whole-body exposed or locally irradiated with carbon ion beams (12C5+; 18.3 MeV/u). Between controls and larvae locally irradiated at the wandering stage, no significant differences in either survival or cocoon quality were observed . Only localized effects were observed, depending on both dose and site of irradiation, but this was not true for whole-body irradiated larva. After local irradiat ion of the hemopoietic organs at the 4th instar premolting stage, the hemocyted ensities were clearly reduced and the hemopoietic organs capacity was disrupted. The results show that radio-surgery utilizing heavy ion beams can destroy a specific organ or tissue in a larva of insect.
    The species and distribution of the necrophagous flies in Guizhou Province
    CHEN Lu-Shi
    2004, 47(6):  849-952. 
    Abstract ( 2991 )   PDF (305KB) ( 941 )     
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    In consideration of area and altitude differences, 12 localities in Guizhou were selected for investigation, where specimens were collected from 10th to 20th in February, May, August and November in each year from 2000 to 2002 to investigate the flies related to cadaver. The necrophagous flies collected were classified into 25 species of 15 genera in 5 families, of which 12 species were newly recorded in Guizhou. Their vertical distribution and seasonal change were analysed.