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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 March 2005, Volume 48 Issue 1
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Screening and characterization of proteins from entomogenous fungi toxic to  Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
    LI Jian-Qing1,2,ZHANG Yong-An1*, ZHANG Xing-Yao1, YUAN Feng3, WANG Yu-Zhu1
    2005, 48(1):  1-6. 
    Abstract ( 2511 )   PDF (385KB) ( 961 )     
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    Forty eight proteins were purified from six strains of entomogenous fungi. Four high toxic proteins were screened by bioassay, withMonochamus alternatus larvae as the targets. The further screening of 4 high toxic proteins showed that the toxicity of protein Bb36W-D was the highest in all the proteins. Protein Bb36W D is composed of two subunits of different sizes. Molecular weight is calculated to be 24 kD for the big subunit and 17 kD for the small subunit. Isoelectric point is 9.47 for the big subunit and 9.32 for the small subunit, respectively. Protein Bb36WD is composed of 16 ammonia acids. Concentrations of arginine, histidine and alanine are higher than others.
    Inducement and production of antibacterial substances in Tenebrio molitor larvae and their antibacterial activity
    HUANG Wen, WANG Fu-Rong, LIU Bin, WANG Jia-Lu, ZHOU Xing-Miao, LEI Chao-Liang*
    2005, 48(1):  7-12. 
    Abstract ( 3069 )   PDF (3021KB) ( 1240 )     
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    Sixthinstar larvae of Tenebrio molitor were treated with different inducing methods including starving, radiating with ultraviolet and pricking, and they all could induce the production of antibacterial substances in hemolymph. The supernate of induced hemolymph not treated with heat had inhibitive effect on fungi, but had no effect on bacteria. When the induced hemolymph was heated, the supernate had inhibitive effect on bacteria, but had no effect on fungi. The result of SDS-PAGE showed the original macromolecular proteins, such as those with molecular weights of 97 kD, 44 kD and 37 kD, disappeared in the induced hemolymph compared with the uninduced one. Moreover, the results of ESI-MS showed micromolecular substances appeared in the hemolymph of the T. molitorlarvae after induction. It was inferred that the disappeared proteins decomposed to micromolecular antibacterial peptides with bactericidal activity.
    Expression, purification and characterization of the American cockroach Cr PI allergen
    GAO Bo1,LIU Zhi-Gang1,2*,XING Miao1,2,XU Hong2, LUO Shi-Wen2, LAI Ren2
    2005, 48(1):  13-17. 
    Abstract ( 2891 )   PDF (1688KB) ( 1005 )     
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    Using the Cr PI clone from the λEXcell library as a template, the cDNA fragments were first generated by PCR techniques and then ligated into T vector. After being confirmed by DNA sequencing, the cDNA encoding the American cockroach Cr PI allergen was subcloned into pGEX-5X-1 and expressed as GSTfusion protein in the form of inclusion bodies. After being dissolved in 6 mol/L guanidine hydrochloride and renatured with a simple dilution method, the proteins of target were purified to above 90% purity by affinity chromatography with Glutathione Sepharose 4B. Tested with sera from subjects allergic to cockroach, the recombinant allergen was shown to possess good IgEbinding activity as determined by Western blotting.
    Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding general odorant binding protein Ⅱ in the antenna of Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée)and its expression in Escherichia coli
    GONG Zhong-Jun1, YUAN Guo-Hui1*, GUO Xian-Ru1, AN Shi-Heng2
    2005, 48(1):  18-23. 
    Abstract ( 2788 )   PDF (486KB) ( 1016 )     
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    The Cdna encoding the general odorant binding protein Ⅱ (named as HassGOBP2) was isolated from the male and female antennae of Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). The Cdna fragment was further cloned into PgemT Easy vector, and then constructed into expression vector Pet-30a(+) for overexpression in prokaryotic cells. Structural analysis showed that the full length of mature HassGOBP2 open reading frame (ORF) was 489 bp, encoding 162 amino acid residues; the predicted MW and Pi were 18.2 Kd and 5 35, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high identity to the reported sequences of GOBP2 from other insects and shared the typical structural features of odorant binding proteins from other insects. Induced by IPTG, the full length of GOBP2 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Its molecular weight was found to be about 23 Kd by checking with SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting.
    Characterization and comparison of general esterases from two field populations of the oriental migratory locust,  Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) from Shanxi Province
    LIU Xin, HE Yan-Ping, MA En-Bo*
    2005, 48(1):  24-30. 
    Abstract ( 2700 )   PDF (594KB) ( 1286 )     
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    General esterases in two field populations of the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen), respectively from Yongji and Linyi, Shanxi Province, were characterized and compared. No distinct difference was detected in banding patterns of general esterases between the two populations, when α-naphthyl acetate was used as substrate in non denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Nevertheless, the general esterase activities in the Yongji population were 1.81and 1.20fold higher, respectively, than those of the Linyi population when α-naphthyl acetate and α-naphthyl butyrate were used as substrates. Increased esterase activity in the Yongji population might be correlated to several additional esterase bands detected with nondenaturing PAGE. Inhibition studies showed that 84.94% and 91.47% of esterases were B-type in Yongji and Linyi population, respectively. The Linyi population appeared to be more susceptible to malaoxon than the Yongji population. We estimated that such differences might be attributed to the different control practices for locusts in the two areas.
    Modulations of the high_voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels by GTP and GDP analogues in the central neurons of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera)
    LI Jie1, TONG Fan1, HE Bing-Jun1, HU Zhao-Nong2, LIU An-Xi1
    2005, 48(1):  31-35. 
    Abstract ( 2990 )   PDF (389KB) ( 892 )     
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    Using Ba2+as current carrier, the effect of G proteins on the highvoltage sensitive Ca2+ channels in the central neurons isolated from the 3rd instar larvae of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera was studied with the whole cell patch clamp technique. The results indicated that the inclusion of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriposate) (GTPγS, 2 mmol/L) in the pipette solution prevented the decline in peak current, and (95.99±7.93)% of the initial current was remained by the end of 20 min recording, compared with (72.09±12.80)% in the control (P <0.01). Moreover, I-V relationship curve obtained from neurons treated with GTP Γs shifted to the positive voltage. In contrast, guanosine5 '-O-(2- thiophosphate) (GDPβS, 2 mmol/L) in the intracellular solution reduced the peak current to (41.95±9.32)% of the initial value, significantly lower than that in the control (P<0.01). No obvious shift of the I-V relationship curve was caused by GDPβS. The results showed that the activities of calcium channels were influenced by GTPγS and GDPβS, which suggests that current amplitude and voltage dependence of calcium channels in H. armigera are modulated by G proteins.
    Inhibitory effect of quercetin on the activity of phenoloxidase in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    LUO Wan-Chun,GAO Xing-Xiang,YU Tian-Cong, WANG Shu-Dong
    2005, 48(1):  36-41. 
    Abstract ( 2761 )   PDF (327KB) ( 999 )     
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    The inhibition to monophenolase and odiphenolase activity of phenoloxidase (PO) in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by quercetin was studied. The results showed that the I50 were estimated to be 0.079 mmol/L for monophenolase activity and 0.087 mmol/L for diphenolase, respectively. Quercetin extended the lag time of the enzyme for oxidation of Ltyrosine. In 0.079 mmol/L the natural source compound resulted in the lag time extension from 134 s to 330 s; in 0158 mmol/L the compound resulted in the lag time extension from 134 s to 440 s. The results of inhibition kinetics analyzed by LineweaverBurk plots indicated that quercetin was a competitive inhibitor for the oxidation of LDOPA, and the inhibition constant was determined to be 33.16 mmol/L. The bathochromic shift was observed with quercetin (367-435 nm) by adding excess Cu2+[KG-*3], and this shift was not observed by adding excess Ca2+or Mg2+[KG-*3].
    Impacts of transgenic cry1Ab rice on two collembolan species and predation of Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae)
    BAI Yao-Yu1,2, JIANG Ming-Xing1, CHENG Jia-An1*
    2005, 48(1):  42-47. 
    Abstract ( 2979 )   PDF (352KB) ( 1035 )     
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    Two collembolan species were collected from paddy fields and identified as  Entomobrya griseoolivata (Packard) and Bourletiella christianseni Banks. Population densities of E. griseoolivatain Bt rice field were significantly higher than that in the control, the XS11 rice field. Cry1Ab insecticidal protein was detected in theE. griseoolivata fed with Bt rice (KMD1 and KMD2) litter in the laboratory. Results from the laboratory studies on predation and functional responses by Microvelia horvathi Lundblad adults showed that all the functional responses of the predator toE. griseoolivata fed with the litter of either Bt rice or the control rice XS11, whether by single or three M. horvathiadult(s), followed the Holling Ⅱ type response. The daily predation, instantaneous attacks constant and handling times of them were not significantly different.
    Effects of nitrogenous fertilization in rice fields on the predatory function of  Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter to Nilaparvata lugens Stl
    LU Zhong-Xian1, YU Xiao-Ping1, HEONG KongLuen2, HU Cui3
    2005, 48(1):  48-56. 
    Abstract ( 2939 )   PDF (525KB) ( 1107 )     
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    The predatory capacities and functional responses of the mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter, on the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal, on rice plants with different nitrogen contents and the effects of the rice sap and BPH honeydew on its predatory function were determined in the laboratory at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines. The results showed that the predatory capacities of C. lividipennis on BPH eggs and young nymphs were negatively related to the nitrogen content of host plants, while no significant difference in predatory capacities was recorded betweenC. lividipennispopulations successively fed on host plants applied with 0 kg N/ha and 200 kg N/ha nitrogen fertilizer for 2 generations. The functional responses of C. Lividipennis populations on BPH eggs belonged to typical Holling II, and theinstantaneous rate of discovery (a) and handling times (Th) were strongly affected by nitrogen contents in host plants. The instantaneous rate of discovery reduced obviously resulted in the lower functional responses on the host plants applied with high nitrogen rate; however, the similar response shapes of different populations were found on the plants with the same nitrogen regime. Furthermore, the influences of rice sap from the plants and honeydew of the BPH females fed on the plants with high nitrogen regime on the extension of longevities of the adults of C. lividipennis were higher than those on the plants with low nitrogen regime. However, the honeydew of BPH on the plants with high nitrogen regime significantly decreased the predatory capacity of C. lividipennis on BPH eggs. These results implied that the reduction of C. lividipennis natural control function should be one of the crucial factors to induce the outbreak of BPH population in rice fields applied with excessive nitrogenous fertilizer.
    Effect of Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus on Trichogramma confusum: Comparison of population parameters and PCR detection
    LUO Kai-Jun, ZHANG Gu-Ren, GU De-Xiang, PANG Yi*
    2005, 48(1):  57-60. 
    Abstract ( 2493 )   PDF (302KB) ( 1058 )     
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    The effect of(Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus,SeMNPV) on Trichogramma confusumViggiani was studied by the methods of life table and PCR. The results showed that there was no significant difference in population parameters ofT. confemales between the treatment with the mixture of SeMNPVhoney and that with honey alone at 25±1℃. For the treatment with the mixture of SeMNPV and the treatment with honey alone at 25±1℃, the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of T. confusum females was 0.3524 and 0.3418, respectively; the finite rate of increase (λ) 1.42 and 1.41; the net reproduction rate (R0) 124.34 and 142.57; the mean generation time 13.6 and 14.5 days; the population doubling time 1.96 nd 2.03 days The results of PCR detection of the offsprings of 5 females ofT. confusum which ingested the the mixture of SeMNPVhoney were all negative. It was therefore concluded that there was no distinct effect of SeMNPV on T. confusum adults, and T. confusum female adults infected with SeMNPV could not transmit SeMNPV to their offsprings.
    Comparison of behavioral and physiological characteristics between the emigrant and immigrant populations of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker)
    JIANG Xing-Fu,LUO Li-Zhi*
    2005, 48(1):  61-67. 
    Abstract ( 2631 )   PDF (480KB) ( 1012 )     
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    Behavioral and physiological characteristics of the emigrant and immigrant populations of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata(Walker) moths trapped in field in Ganyu County, Jiangsu Province and Shenyang suburb, Liaoning Province were examined. The results indicated that moths of the emigrant population exhibited stronger flight potential than that of the immigrant population. The flight distance, total flight duration and average flight speed in he emigrant population were 13.6 km, 153.1 min and 5.1 km/h, while in the immigrant population were 6.0 km, 64.3 min and 4.9 km/h, respectively. All of the flight potential variables except flight speed in the immigrant population were significantly less than those in the emigrant population. Dry weight of the thoracic dorsallongitudinal muscle in female in the emigrant population was 6.53 mg, significantly higher than the value of 5.92 mg in the immigrant population. Most females in the emigrant population exhibited little or no ovarian development and were seldom mated, and mean basal ovariole width, length, wet weight, mating rate and frequency were 0.21 mm, 4.01 cm, 16.34 mg, 27.5% and 0.32 respectively, which were significantly lower than those of 0.51 mm, 5.43 cm, 56.7 mg, 98% and 1.44 in the immigrant population. In addition, the ovarian development and mating rate in the immigrant females early trapped were lower than those later trapped and increased as trapping time prolonged. Juvenile hormone titer (JHⅡ) in the emigrant population was 4.63ng/mg, also significantly lower than that of 8.69 in the immigrant population. Comparison of all of these variables between the emigrant and immigrant populations suggests that there are obvious tradeoff between flight and reproduction. The migrants have strong flight potential, and reproduction activities are depressed before migration, while mating and oviposition begin rapidly after they arrive at new habitats. This model fits the “oogenesisflight syndrome" hypothesis well. The juvenile hormone plays a significant role in the tradeoff process between flight and reproduction in the female
    Influence of chemical environment in pupal stage on the olfactory orientation of adults in Liriomyza sativae Blanchard
    YU Guo-Hui1, CHENG Ping2, ZHANG Wen-Qing1, GU De-Xiang1, ZHANG Gu-Ren1*
    2005, 48(1):  68-73. 
    Abstract ( 2490 )   PDF (1087KB) ( 929 )     
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    The pupae of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard were exposed to three plant volatiles, I.e., linalool,3-hexen-1-ol andβ-caryophyllene, respectively. The orientation ratio (OR) and average responding time (AR) of female adults emerged from the treated pupae to the treatment compounds were investigated with Y type olfactometer. There was no significant difference in OR and AR to 3-hexen-1-ol between the treatment (OR, 37.7%; AR, 21.5 s) and control (OR, 30.4%; AR, 35.0 s). Although there was no significant difference in OR to -β-aryophyllene between the treatment (46.2%) and control (42.0%), AR in the treatment (21.0 s) was significantly shorter than in the control (41.5 s). Both OR (52.9%) and AR (19.5 s) of the emerged females to linalool in the treatment were significantly different from that of the control (OR, 28.4 %; AR, 34.5 s). The further experiments with linalool indicated that the early developmental stage of pupae was susceptible to the chemical environment of pupae. After 1, 3, 5 or 7 day(s) old pupae were exposed to linalool for 48 h, only OR (54%) of females from 1 day old treatment was significantly higher than that of the control (26%), but AR of females from 1, 3, 5 day(s) old treatments were significantly shorter than that of the control. Both OR and AR of the females were also influenced by exposure time. After 2 day(s) old pupae were exposed to linalool for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 , only OR of the females from 72, 96, and 120 h treatment were significantly higher than that of the control. AR of the females from all treatments were significant shorter than that of the control. It is therefore inferred that the chemical environment in pupal stage could influence the olfactory orientation of adult females in L. sativae.
    Damages by excretion of Apopestes spectrum (Esper) imagos on the Dunhuang murals and their control
    WANG Wan-Fu1,2, LIN Chuang-Ye3, WANG Tao1, MA Zan-Feng2
    2005, 48(1):  74-81. 
    Abstract ( 2701 )   PDF (2060KB) ( 1045 )     
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    Damages by excretion ofApopestes spectrum (Esper) imagos on the Dunhuang murals and their control measures were studied through field investigations and simulating experiments in Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang and Yulin Grottoes, Yulin, Gansu Province. The results showed that the spatial distribution of A. spectrum imagos within the caves had the following patterns: imago numbers increased from the lower caves to upper caves, and this in turn was closely related with temperature and humidity in caves. The occurrence peak of A. spectrum imagos inside caves was in August, which was consistent with the emergence peak of the moth in fields. Excretion of a single imago could pollute as much as 150 mm2 murals annually in average, but the damages on murals were different due to color variations. Excretion of the moth caused high damages on murals with blue and white colors, slight damages on that with red and brown colors, and low damages on that with red and brown colors. The excretion not only polluted mural surfaces, but also eroded the murals as acidic materials such as phosphates and carbonates within the excrements reacted with color materials, plaster layers and air. Besides the physical prevention method (screening caves against moths), biological agents and chemicals were tested for controlling A. spectrum larvae in the first 10 days of June, and the control efficacies on 2nd-3rd instar larvae of the moth reached as high as 85.6% in 10 days after spraying 15% chloromethiuron and 97.6 % in 72 hours after spraying 2.5% deltamethrin.
    Acoustic properties in sounds of the eastern striped cricket, Velarifictorus micado (Saussure) and their biological implications
    CHEN Dao-Hai1,2, YUAN Zhao-Qing1, DU Jin-Qiu1, CHEN Hua-Xu1
    2005, 48(1):  82-89. 
    Abstract ( 2552 )   PDF (1888KB) ( 997 )     
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    The structure, spectra and temporal parameters of sounds of Velarifictorus micado under different conditions were studied by acoustic analysis techniques. The results show that the sounds can be classified into 7 types of songs: calling, warning, provoking, victory, welcome, courting and urging song. The experiments show that the characteristics of these 7 types of songs are distinguished in acoustic properties with specific behavior and biological information.
    Bionomics of Chrysonotomyia formosa (Westwood) (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae)
    SONG Li-Qun1, GAO Yan2, ZHANG Wen-Qing3, GU De-Xiang3, XU Zai-Fu2, GU De-Jiu2
    2005, 48(1):  90-94. 
    Abstract ( 2679 )   PDF (1076KB) ( 1080 )     
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    Chrysonomyia formosa(Westwood) is a predominant parasitoid on the vegetable leafminer, Liriomyza sativae Blanchard. The bionomics of C. formosa was studied in the laboratory. With the increase of temperatures from 17℃ to 35℃, adult wasps emerged earlier, emergence time of adult was more concentrated, the peak of emergence advanced, and the longevity of the adults was shortened gradually. Feeding with water, the longevity of female was prolonged significantly when host larvae were provided than when host larvae not provided. Provided with host larvae the longevity of female wasp was prolonged significantly feeding on 10% honey liquid than those feeding on water. Female C. formosa preferred the 3rd instar larvae oL. sativae The mortality and parasitism on the 3rdinstar larvae of host were higher than on the 1stinstar and 2ndinstar larvae. The sex ratio of offspring was 5.11(F) ∶ 1(M) when the 3rdinstar larvae of host were offered for the female wasps. At the range of temperature 17℃ to 35℃, the developmental durations of the wasp were decreased with the increase of temperatures
    Prediction of potential geographic distribution areas for the pine bark scale,  Matsucoccus matsumurae (Kuwana) (Homoptera: Margarodidae) in China using GARP modeling system
    LI Hong-Mei1,2, HAN Hong-Xiang1,2, XUE Da-Yong1*
    2005, 48(1):  95-100. 
    Abstract ( 3127 )   PDF (1187KB) ( 1142 )     
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    The pine bark scale,Matsucoccus matsumurae(Kuwana), is a major invasive pest of Pinus trees. Based on the genetic algorithm for ruleset prediction modeling system (GMS), the potential geographic distribution of the scale in China were analyzed. The results indicated that the spreading of the scale in China underwent three main phases, I.e., sporadic distribution phase, gradually spreading phase and rapidly spreading phase. It was predicated that the population of the pine bark scale could be established in 27 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China, especially in the northeast and the eastern coastal areas, and the expanding direction is upcountry in China. Further predictive analysis with Liaoning and Jilin provinces confirmed the precision of the method, and showed that the expanding direction was consistent with that of the countrywide, and 6 grand risk areas and 13 key areas for subsequent dispersion were further defined for the region.
    Sequencing of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunitⅠfor identification of sarcosaphagous flies (Diptera) in Chengdu
    CAI Ji-Feng1,LIU Min1, YING Bin-Wu1, DONG Jian-Guo2, DENG Zheng-Hua 1, TAO Tao1, PAN Hong-Fu1, ZHANG Hong-Xiasup>1, YAN Hong-Tao1, LIAO Zhi-Gang1*
    2005, 48(1):  101-106. 
    Abstract ( 3035 )   PDF (370KB) ( 1122 )     
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    To solve the problems of identification of sarcosaphagous flies and their larvae and eggs, for which all of eggs and most of larvae could not be identified using their morphological features only, the feasibility of species identification based on a 278 bp region of the gene for cytochrome oxidase subunitⅠ(COⅠ) encoding region of mtDNA was evaluated.Samples were collected on the corpses of rabbits on the grassland in the Chengdu district.The mtDNA of flies was extracted using the improved technique in grinding tissue during extracting DNA from small insects.Reactions were conducted on a Perkin-Elmer 9600 thermal cycler, followed by vertical non-denaturing polyacrylamide electrophoresis.PCR products were purified using the Nucleic Acid Purification Kit.Sequences of both strands were obtained by direct sequence of the double-stranded PCR product using one of the PCR primers and the ABI PRISM Big Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit. Sequence reactions were electrophoresed on ABI Model 377 DNA Sequencers. A neighbour-joining tree using the Tamura and Nei model of nucleotide substitution was constructed using the MEGA2.1 package. The analysis of a 278 base pairs region of the gene for COⅠencoding region of mtDNA of sarcosaphagous flies collected from Chengdu district showed less than 1% sequence divergence within species and about 10% divergence between species. So it is concluded that this region of the gene for COⅠencoding region of mtDNA of sarcosaphagous flies can be effectively used for identification of them to species level. Owing to the speed, easiness and accuracy of current nucleotide sequencing technology, it is likely to enable the reliable identification of sarcosaphagous flies.
    A taxonomic study of the genus Delias Hübner in China (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)
    WEI Zhong-Min1,2, WU Chun-Sheng1*
    2005, 48(1):  107-118. 
    Abstract ( 3273 )   PDF (2298KB) ( 1014 )     
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    This paper deals with 11 species and 31 subspecis of Delias Hübner, 1819 from China.Among themD.berinda berindaMoore,D.sanaca bhutyaTalbot and D.lativitta parva Talbot are newly recorded in China.D.lativitta taiYoshino is synonymized withD.lativitta yunnanaTalbot;D.patrua guiyangensis Zhou et Zhang synonymized with D.berinda adelma Mitis.The male and partial female genitalia are illustrated.A key to the Chinese species is given.The adult photographs of newly recorded and little known subspecies in China are provided.The geographical distribution of the genus in China is discussed.
    Effect of the gene mutations associated with knockdown resistance on sodium channel function in pest insects
    TANG Zhe-Hua1, YUAN Jian-Zhong1, ZHUANG Pei-Jun1, TAO Li-Ming2,1
    2005, 48(1):  119-124. 
    Abstract ( 2765 )   PDF (402KB) ( 1025 )     
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    The present paper reviewed the studies on expression of insect sodium channel genes and functional characterization, function of resistanceassociated mutations, effects of these mutations on sodium channel gating, as well as causal relationship between sodium channel gene mutations and resistant phenotypes.The molecular mechanism by which these mutations enhance kdr resistance was also discussed.
    Plant defense responses induced by insect herbivory 
    QIN Qiu-Ju, GAO-XiWu*
    2005, 48(1):  125-134. 
    Abstract ( 4392 )   PDF (764KB) ( 2903 )     
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    Plants respond to insect herbivory with a myriad of inducible responses, broadly categorized as direct defenses and indirect defenses.Herbivoreinduced plant direct defenses include the production of toxic metabolites and proteins.Direct defenses can negatively affect a herbivore's physiology, but exact large resource demands on plant metabolism.Plants can also defend themselves against herbivores indirectly by emitting specific blends of volatiles that attract carnivorous natural enemies.Herbivoreinduced plant volatiles can be triggered by some insect specific elicitors.Multiple signaling transduction pathways are involved in plant defense responses to insect herbivores, and they can interact with each other, either synergistically or antagonistically.Understanding herbivoreinduced plant responses can provide important information for the complement of integrated pest management tactics.
    Observations on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    FU Jian-Ye, ZHANG Qing-Wen*, CAI Qing-Nian, XU Jing, MA Xiao-Mu, ZHANG Li-Sheng
    2005, 48(1):  135-138. 
    Abstract ( 2920 )   PDF (2033KB) ( 1088 )     
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    Chromosome preparations were made from testis tissue of the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) with airdry method.The morphological characteristics and behaviors of the chromosomes at various phases of mitosis and meiosis were studied.The chromosome number of the beet armyworm was determined as n=31 All chromosomes have diffuse centromeres, and two chromosomes have secondary constriction.Chromosomes interlockings occur during the late zygotene.The synaptonemal complexes stretch gradually from the early pachytene to late pachytene.During the diakinesis the synaptonemal complexes showed rings, crossed or endto-end configurations.
    Optimization of the gelfiltration chromatography parameters for separating proteins from the crude extracts of housefly
    AN Chun-Ju, LI De-Sen, ZHAO Su-Ran, DU Rong-Qian*
    2005, 48(1):  139-142. 
    Abstract ( 2527 )   PDF (252KB) ( 1177 )     
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    The influences of gelfiltration chromatography media, column diameter, column height and flow rate on separation performance of the protein crude extracts of housefly (Musca domestica) were investigated.The results indicated that the all above four factors could affect the separation performance of the crude extracts in gelfiltration chromatography by various degrees.In the scope of the present tests, the best separation performance was achieved using Sephadex G-75 (1.3 cm×40 cm) with 0.4 mL/min rate.
    An improved inoculation technique for inoculating recombinant baculovirus into silkworm, Bombyx mori, using lipofectin
    WU Xiao-Feng1*, CAO Cui-Ping1, CUI Wei-Zheng2
    2005, 48(1):  143-146. 
    Abstract ( 2856 )   PDF (1051KB) ( 963 )     
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    InsectBaculovirus Expression System is one of the most effective eukaryotic expression systems, which has been widely used to produce a lot of recombinant proteins.The current inoculation method is to inject recombinant virus directly into silkworm larvae, resulting in possibly biological danger due to virus contamination to environment during the practical operation.Therefore, it is necessary to develop safe infection methods in order to control the diffusion of recombinant virus.In this experiment, we tried to introduce directly the genome DNA of baculovirus, instead of virus itself, into silkworm Bombyx mori larvae and got the same infection result.By using cationic lipofectin reagent, a new safe and effective infection technique without virus contamination was developed.
    Sublethal effects of eight insecticides on development and reproduction of Bradysia odoriphaga
    MU Wei, LIU Feng*, JIA Zhong-Ming, ZHAO De, MU Li-Yi
    2005, 48(1):  147-150. 
    Abstract ( 3428 )   PDF (224KB) ( 1201 )     
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    After the LC20and LC50 of eight insecticides to the 3rd instar larvae of Bradysia odoriphaga were determined, the effects of eight insecticides in sublethal doses to the biology of survival larvae were compared.The biological parameters included larval mortality after 72 h, adult survival rate 72 h after emergence, pupation rate, female pupa weight, emergence rate, sex proportion (♀:), eggs laid per female and egg hatchability.For chlorpyrifos, phoxim, abamectin and chlorfenapyr, the effect of sublethal doses were significant and in the order chlorpyrifos>phoxim>abamectin ≌ chlorfenapyr; but for benfuracarb, methomyl, carbosulfan, and imidacloprid, the effect was not obvious.Compared with the control, there were no differences except pupation rate and emergence rate in the survival individuals treated at the dose of LC50 with benfuracarb, methomyl, carbosulfan, imidacloprid.
    An expert system for rice integrated pest management based on Oracle 
    LI Yong1,2, ZHOU Qiang2, ZHANG Run-Jie2*
    2005, 48(1):  151-154. 
    Abstract ( 2895 )   PDF (275KB) ( 929 )     
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    In this study, database, computer network and spatial information tools were used to develop an expert system for rice integrated pest management, RIPMES Ⅱ based on Oracle. The system consisted of subsystems of data collection, data maintenance, data analysis and result output. The integrated frame was constituted to resolve real time data collection, great data storage, and analysis of spatial distribution characteristics of insect pests,etc.The system provided a valid means for rice integrated pest management and also could be a reference to those who study expert system.