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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
29 June 2005, Volume 48 Issue 2
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Influences of flight on energetic reserves and juvenile hormone synthesis by corpora allata of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker)
    LI Ke-Bin1,2, CAO Ya-Zhong1*, LUO Li-Zhi1, GAO Xi-Wu2, YIN Jiao1, HU Yi1
    2005, 48(2):  155-160. 
    Abstract ( 3664 )   PDF (237KB) ( 1176 )     
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    The energetic reserves, juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis by corpora allata and breakdown of indirect flight muscles of the migratory oriental armyworm moth, Mythimna separata(Walker), as influenced by tethered flight at different days were assayed in the laboratory. The regeneration of  energetic reserves of the moths flown for 12 hours on the 1st day after emergence was significantly higher than the unflown ones. The energetic reserves of the treatments flown for 12 hours on the 3rd day after emergence were lower than that of the control, but the difference was not significant. Moths flown for 12 hours on the 5th day after emergence displayed lower energetic reserves than that of the control throughout the test period. Differences in JH biosynthesis rates in female moths flown on different days after emergence were confirmed by the radiochemical assay. JH biosynthesis rates in female moths flown on the 1st day was higher than that of the control after 36 hours, and then underwent a sharp increase, peaked after 108 hours. On the 5th day after emergence, JH biosynthesis rates in flown females were lower than that of the control, but not significantly. The flight muscle of female flown 12 hours on the 1st day after emergence degenerated prior to that of the control. Therefore, the 1st to 3rd day in adult armyworm could be considered to be the critical period for activation of the corpora allata.
    Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of four predatory insect species to semiochemicals of wheat
    LIU Yong, GUO Guang-Xi, CHEN Ju-Lian, NI Han-Xiang
    2005, 48(2):  161-165. 
    Abstract ( 3410 )   PDF (168KB) ( 1412 )     
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    The electrophysiological and olfactory responses of the four polyphagous predatory insect species, i.e., Coccinella septempunctata,Propylaea japonica, Chrysoperla sinica and Chrysopa septempunctata, to semiochemicals of wheat fed by wheat aphids were studied. Electrophysiological responses of all four species to 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, 2-camphene and methyl salicylate were stronger than that of the control. Response of Coccinella septempunctata to 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol was the strongest (0.96±0.18 mV). But these natural enemies had no response to E-2-hexenal. "Y"tube olfactory test showed that 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, 2-camphene and methyl salicylate were attractive to them. It was concluded that chemical cues induced by wheat aphid feeding play an important role in host and host habitat location of the four polyphagous predatory natural enemies.
    Effects of parasitism factors of the parasitoid Cotesiaplutellaeon fat body structure of the host Plutella xylostellalarvae
    BAI Su-Fen1,2, CHEN Xue-Xin1*, CHENG Jia-An1, FU Wen-J
    2005, 48(2):  166-171. 
    Abstract ( 2679 )   PDF (5070KB) ( 1472 )     
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    Changes in the fat body structure of the host Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera:  Plutellidae) larvae induced by different parasitism factors of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera:  Braconidae) in different parasitized states were observed with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that the fat body cytology of parasitized larvae was different from those of pseudo-parasitized host and non-parasitized control. The polydnavirus (PDV) and venom had no obvious effects on the fat body structure in the pseudo-parasitism condition, where the fat body maintained the integrality with normal stacks of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, glycogens accumulated in some cells, and more amounts of total lipids present but smaller as compared with those of the non-parasitized host larvae. The most striking features of fat bodies in the parasitized larvae were the cytoplasmic organelles decreased and mitochondria with ill-defined cristae, and especially during the final parasitism stage (when parasitoid larvae completed their development),  the fat body structure was everely destroyed. In contrast, when the non-parasitized larvae were in the final phase of the 4th instar, the fat body cells developed normally and were undergoing transformation from the larval into prepupal stage, with large lipid bodies and rich mitochondria and glycogen present,some of them existing in free cell rosettes. These results suggest that different parasitism factors, i.e.PDV, venom, teratocytes and parasitoid larvae, have different effects on the host fat bodies.

    Partial purification of glutathione S-transferases by protein precipitators in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)
    TANG Fang, ZHANG Chang-Zhong, LIANG Pei, SHI Xue-Yan, GAO Xi-Wu
    2005, 48(2):  172-178. 
    Abstract ( 2853 )   PDF (262KB) ( 1505 )     
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    The partial purification of glutathione S-transferases (GST) in  larvae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was studied using ammonium sulfate fractionation after polyethylene imine (PEI) fractionation, polyethyleneglycol (PEG) fractionation and GSH-Sepharose 4B. The results showed that efficacy of purification by PEG10000 and PEG20000 was better than that of ammonium sulfate fractionation after PEI fractionation. After wiping off nucleic acid using PEI fractionation, the peaks of GST activities were in 70%-75% and 60%-65% of ammonium sulfate fractionation for midgut and fat body, respectively; the specific activities were 1 081.49 and 596.41 nmol/(min·mg), and purification factors were 2.53-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively. The efficacy of purification by PEG10000 and PEG20000 was the best in six kinds of PEG tested. The activity peaks of GST were in 40%-45% and 30%-40% of PEG10000 fractionation for midgut and fat body, respectively; the specific activities were 795.11 and 1 080.18 nmol/(min·mg), and purification factors were 2.4-fold and 3.97-fold, respectively; the activities of GST were the highest in 25%-40% and 25%-45% of PEG20000 fractionation for midgut and fat body, respectively. The specific activities of GST were 767.57 and 945.96 nmol/(min·mg) respectively, and the purification factors were 2.81-fold and 3.05-fold. The specific activity of GST from midgut reached 5 888.44 nmol/(min·mg)  by GSH-Sepharose 4B column chromatography and the purification factor increased to 107.38-fold. 
    Expression of the antifreeze protein gene of a pyrochroid beetle Dendroides canadensis in prokaryote and detection of the protein biological activity
    LIU Zhong-Yuan, ZHANG Fu-Chun*, WANG Yun, LU Guo-Dong
    2005, 48(2):  179-183. 
    Abstract ( 7279 )   PDF (320KB) ( 2187 )     
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    In order to express a pyrochroid beetle Dendroides canadensis antifreeze protein in E. coli BL21 and to investigate the properties of recombinant antifreeze protein, the D. canadensis afpgene was synthesized,  cloned into the pGEX-4T-1, and transformed into E. coli BL21 The optimal inductive condition was selected by  different experimental approaches. The results of SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the antifreeze protein was expressed successfully in E.coli BL21 The expressed antifreeze protein, existing in the soluble and fusion form, with the molecular weight of about 40 kD, could increase low temperature resistance of bacteria as shown by the biological activity detection.
    Distribution of the nitric oxide synthase during gametogenesis in Phaneroptera gracilis Burmeister
    LI Ke, XI Geng-Si, SU Xiao-Hong, YIN Huan
    2005, 48(2):  184-187. 
    Abstract ( 2533 )   PDF (1665KB) ( 1044 )     
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     The distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) during gametogenesis in Phaneroptera gracilis Burmeister was studied with NADPH-diaphorase histochemical method. The results showed that nitric oxide synthase positive reaction could be found in the cytoplasm of permatogenic cells in the different stages of the gametogenesis in P. gracilis, while NOS negative reaction appeared in matured sperms. There were NOS positive reactions in the cytoplasm of immatured oocytes in all stages. Usually, cytoplasms were stained with some heavy black while nuclear regions were not obvious. With the formation of yolk granules, the products of NOS positive reactions diminished gradually in cytoplasm until yolk granules formed completely. The follicle cells showed NOS negatively before the formation of yolk granules. After the yolk granules formed completely, the cytoplasm of follicle cells started showing NOS positively until the formation of chorion.
    Microscopic observations of infection process ofMetarhizium anisopliae on the cuticle of the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella
    WANG Yin, LEI Zhong-Ren, ZHANG Qing-Wen, WEN Jin-Zeng
    2005, 48(2):  188-193. 
    Abstract ( 2811 )   PDF (2726KB) ( 1368 )     
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    The infection mode of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella by two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae was studied using scanning electron microscopy.  The results indicated surface topography of host affected infection behavior, especially appressoria production. There were more appressoria formed and shorter germ tubes grew before penetrating in gentle and spinous surface topography than in acanthoid surface topography. The germ tubes of LF68 isolate were shorter than that of LD65 isolate before the appressoria formed  or penetration occurred in all kinds of surface topography. Conidia germinated within 7 h postinoculation for the two isolates, but penetrations were observed within 10 h and 13 h for LF68 and LD65 isolates, respectively.
    The mutation of carboxylesterase gene of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypiiassociated with omethoate resistance
    GUO Hui-Lin, GAO Xi-Wu
    2005, 48(2):  194-202. 
    Abstract ( 2923 )   PDF (598KB) ( 1540 )     
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     A laboratory susceptible strain (YSS) of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover), was selected with omethoate in successive generations in the laboratory to develop a resistant strain (YRR ). After 24 generations, the resistance ratio of YRR strain was increased by 124.7-fold compared with the omethoate-susceptible strain. Carboxylesterase activity was significantly lower in the omethoate-resistant strain than in the omethoate-susceptible strain when α-naphthyl acetate (α-NA)was used as substrate. A  carboxylesterase gene had been fully cloned and equenced from both omethoate-susceptible and resistant strains. Comparison of both nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences revealed  four nucleotide acid differences between the omethoate-susceptible and resistant strain, which resulted in four amino acid substitutions (His104→Arg, Ala128→Val, Thr333→Asp, Lys484→Arg). Knowledge of the structure of a related enzyme acetylcholinesterase) suggests that one of these substitutions (His104→Arg) lies within the active site of the enzyme. The GenBank accession numbers of carboxylesterase genes of omethoate-resistant (YRRAA) and susceptible (YSSAA) A. gossypii are AY485216 and AY485214,respectively.
    Effect of temperature on development and fecundity of resistant Tetranychus cinnabarinus(Boiduval)
    HE Lin, ZHAO Zhi-Mo, CAO Xiao-Fang, DENG Xin-Ping, WANG Jin-Jun
    2005, 48(2):  203-207. 
    Abstract ( 3144 )   PDF (165KB) ( 1437 )     
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    For understanding the changing of biological characteristics of Tetranychus cinnabarinus  (Boiduval) which had developed resistance to acaricides, the biological characteristics of the susceptible strain (S), the abamectin-resistant strain (AR) and the fenpropathrin-resistant strain (FR) at different temperatures were assayed and compared. The relationship between temperature and growth speed of the three strains was simulated using the Wang-Lan-Ding Models. The results showed the eggs of the S and FR strains did not hatch at the high temperature of 36℃ while that of the AR strain could complete generation development. Compared to the S strain, the AR and FR strains extended generation developmental time 7.98 and 6.15 days, respectively, and shortened the pre-oviposition duration about 2 days at  the low temperature of 15℃. The fecundity of the S strain was higher than that of the two resistant strains within the temperature range of 20℃-28℃ while lower than that of the AR strain at 34℃. The maximum boundary temperatures of S, FR and AR strains were 36.0℃, 36.1℃and 42.4℃, respectively. The results suggest that the AR strain has stronger tolerance  to high temperature than the other two strains.
    Biotransfer and bioaccumulation of Cry1Ab insecticidal protein in rice plant-brown planthopper-wolf spider food chain
    CHEN Mao, YE Gong-Yin, LU Xin-Min, HU Cui, PENG Yu-Fa, SHU Qing-Yao, Illimar ALTOSAAR
    2005, 48(2):  208-213. 
    Abstract ( 4081 )   PDF (214KB) ( 1658 )     
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    The concentration of Cry1Ab insecticidal protein expressed in two homozygous transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice lines, KMD1 and KMD2, were determined by enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the PathoScreen kit for Bt cry1Ab/Ac protein (Agdia, USA). The results showed that the concentration of Cry1Ab expressed both in KMD1 and KMD2 at the heading and maturing stage were significantly lower than that at the seedling, tillering and booting stage. CrylAb protein could be transferred from   transgenic rice plants to its nontarget pest brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), and from N. lugens to its natural enemy wolf spider (WS),Pirata subpiraticus (Boesenberg et Strand) in the food chain by preying. The quantitative cycle of Cry1Ab insecticidal protein in the food chain was analyzed using the kit. After being fed on KMD1 or KMD2 rice plants for 2 days, Cry1Ab protein could be detected in the N. lugens  body. However, after continuous feeding on Bt rice plants for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, the content of Cry1Ab remaining in the N. lugens body did not show the expected tendency of increase. Also, Cry1Ab protein could be detected in the P. subpiraticus body by preying on the N. lugens reared on KMD1 or KMD2 rice plants for 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 days, while their contents were significantly higher than those of N. lugens  fed on KMD1 or KMD2 for the same time. Although the inoculation time was increased from 2 to 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, the level of Cry1Ab detected in P. subpiraticus did not show any increase.  Additionally, there were no significant differences among the predatory consumptions of P. subpiraticus preying on N. lugens reared on KMD1, KMD2 or on the non-transgenic parental rice line Xiushui11. No clear bioaccumulation pattern of Cry1Ab protein was observed in N. lugens and P. subpiraticus. More than 50 percent of Cry1Ab was degraded by the crude protease extract from the midgut of P. subpiraticus at 37℃ without light for 2 hours. However, as the exposure time increased from 2 to 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours, the detoxification function of the crude protease extract did not show a tendency to increase.
    Effects of transgenic corn hybrids expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin on survival and growth of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)
    WANG Zhen-Ying, WANG Dong-Yan, HE Kang-Lai, BAI Shu-Xiong, LIU Hui, Cong Bin
    2005, 48(2):  214-220. 
    Abstract ( 5283 )   PDF (278KB) ( 1771 )     
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    Effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn on survival and growth of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) larvae, were evaluated with laboratory bioassay and field tests. Two Bt corn hybrids of events MON810 and Bt11 expressing Cry1Ab toxin and their non-Bt controls were employed. The results showed that the neonates of the beet armyworm could not survive when fed on whorl leaves, tassels and silks separately of the two Bt corns, in laboratory bioassay. A small number of  neonates could survive and develop to pupate when fed on tassels and silks of MON810 and Bt11: the pupation rate is 5.2% and 2.1% with the emergence rate of 2.1% and 1.0% on MON810 and Bt11 tassels; 1.0% and 2.1% larvae pupates without emergence on MON810 and Bt11 silks, respectively. The duration for the larvae from neonate to pupae was 17 d and 28.5 d when fed on silks of MON810 and Bt11, compared with 14.0 d and 16.0 d on the corresponding non-transgenic isogenic controls, respectively. The larvae fed on tassels and silks of Bt corns had significantly lower weights than that fed on non-Bt controls in 7 days after infestation. The weight of the larvae fed on the non-Bt control husks of MON810 and Bt11 was 27.6 and 52.9 times the weights of the larvae fed on MON810 and Bt11, respectively. Development of the beet armyworm larvae fed on Bt corn was significantly delayed. Resistance level of the Bt corn whorl tissues to the 4th instar larvae was low. No significant difference was found in the pupation rate for the 4th instar larvae fed on the whorl leaves of MON810 (71.7%) and its non-Bt control (75.0%), but otherwise for those fed on Bt11 (56.7%) and its non-transgenic hybrid (85.0%). The weights of female and male pupae and the percentage of emergence when the 4th instar larvae fed on the Bt corn were significantly lower than that fed on non-Bt controls. Larval survival rate and the percentage of injured ears when larvae fed on MON810 and Bt11 silks were significantly lower compared with non-Bt controls assayed 10 d after the inoculation of the neonates in the field tests.
    Assessment on the introduction risk of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) through imported fruits with fuzzy mathematics
    ZHANG Run-Jie, HOU Bo-Hua
    2005, 48(2):  221-226. 
    Abstract ( 3180 )   PDF (172KB) ( 1550 )     
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     The introduction risk of Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)through imported fruits was assessed using fuzzy mathematics. An assessing parameter set was established, which included 5 primary parameters (species of imported fruits, volume of imported fruits, injury rate of imported fruits, survival of B. dorsalis during the shipping, and efficacy of quarantine) and 9 secondary parameters (occurrence degree in the production area, control efficacy in production area, disinfestations before shipping, shipping period, condition of shipping, limiting factor occurrence during shipping, percentage of sampling, injury rate of checked samples, and effects of quarantine treatment). The weight for each parameter was calculated through weight-analyzing method, and a fuzzy decision model was developed to determine the introduction risk of B. dorsalis. Simulation results show that disinfestation treatment before export and quarantine inspection to imported fruits arrived at port are very important to reduce risk. The volume of imported fruits and the limiting factor occurrence during shipping also contribute significantly to the value of introduction risk.

    Bioluminescent courtship behavior of aquatic firefly Luciola substriata (Gorh.) (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) in China
    FU Xin-Hua, OHBA Nobuyoshi, WANG Yu-Yong, LEI Chao-Liang
    2005, 48(2):  227-231. 
    Abstract ( 2826 )   PDF (8510KB) ( 1783 )     
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    Aquatic firefly Luciola substriata emits single species-specific flash signals for courtship. Under 23℃ and 86% RH, flying male adults emit flash signal with flash duration 0.52 s, interval 0.28 s, and flash intensity peak of 0.6 lx. The flash signal period of female adults is 0.67 s and the intensity peak is 0.4 lx. About 0.22 s after male advertising signal, female adults respond with two flash signals. The duration of the first response signal is 0.49 s and the second is 0.41 s. The interval of the two response signals is 0.11 s. When received the response flash signals, flying male adults land 5~10 cm near the female adults and continue to flash. At this time, the signal frequency of male adults become lower, with flash duration 1.23 s and the interval 0.5 s. Adults of L. substriata mate with copulatory position of “V" or “-" type. 
    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Acridoidea based on 18S rDNA with a discussion on its taxonomic system
    LIU Dian-Feng, JIANG Guo-Fang
    2005, 48(2):  232-241. 
    Abstract ( 3073 )   PDF (366KB) ( 1456 )     
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    The fragments of 18S rRNA gene were sequenced for 7 species  from 7 families of Acridoidea, and the homologous sequences of 17 species of Orthoptera were downloaded from the GenBank data library. After the sequences were aligned, likelihood ratio test was used to find the best model of nucleotide substitution fitting the data obtained from alignment. The molecular phylogenetic trees were reconstructed using Paratettix cucullatus of Tetrigoidea and Stiphra robusta of Eumastacoidea as outgroups with NJ, MP, ML and Bayesian methods. There were 205 variable sites and 74 parsimony-informative sites in the 1 849 nucleotides of the data, and the relative frequencies of the four nucleotides were approximately equal, which showed that the base compositions were not biased. The molecular phylogenetic trees showed that Acridoidea was divided into four clades, and the present families including Chrotogonidae, Pyrgomorphidae, Catantopidae, Arcypteridae, Gomphoceridae and Acrididae, were not monophyletic. It is suggested that Acridoidea be divided into four families:  Pyrgomorphidae, Pamphagidae, Pneumoroidae and Acrididae.
    A taxonomic review of the genus Hexacenthrus Serville from China (Orthoptera: Conocephalidae)
    WANG Jian-Feng, SHI Fu-Ming
    2005, 48(2):  242-246. 
    Abstract ( 3119 )   PDF (558KB) ( 1562 )     
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    This paper reviewed the species of the genus Hexacentrus Serville from China, listed the key to species of the genus Hexacentrus from China, and described a new species, namely Hexacentrus expansus sp. nov. This new species is close to H. inflatissimus Gorochov & Warcholowska-Sliwa,1999 and H. yunnaneus Bey-Bienko, 1962, but differs from the former in:  1) body obviously small; 2) Cu2 vein of male left tegmen long and straight; 3) Rs vein of male tegmina arising from about the end of R vein; 4) tegmina of female narrow, not reaching the apex of ovispositor; and from the latter in:  1) body yellowish green, the third and fourth joints of tarsi blackish brown; 2) Cu2 vein of male left tegmen strong; 3) Rs vein of male tegmina arising from the end of R vein, at base slightly curved; 4) styli slender, longer than the half length of subgenital plate. The type specimens are deposited in the Museum of Hebei University.  

    Cladistic biogeography of the genus Ornativalva Gozmány (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
    LI Zhi-Qiang, LI Hou-Hun
    2005, 48(2):  247-261. 
    Abstract ( 3120 )   PDF (435KB) ( 1481 )     
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    Sixty-six character transformation series were selected based on the morphological study of fifty-one species of the genus Ornativalva Gozmány worldwide. The cladistic analysis of fifty-one species was performed using PAUP*4b10. The result shows that heluanensis-group is not a monophyletic group. Hence the modified partition of seven species-groups was proposed:  the heluanensis-group includes O. heluanensis, O. longiductella, O. rufipuncta, O. zonella, O. roseosuffusella; the erubescens-group includes O. levifrons, O. erubescens,  O. lilyella, O. aspera, O. pulchella, O. ignota,  O. frontella, O. arabica, O. sesostrella; the plicella-group includes O. plicella, O. undella, O. xinjiangensis, O. pharaonis; the tamariciella-group includesO. indica, O. misma, O. serratisignella, O. caecigena, O. macrosignella, O. heligmatodes,  O. tamariciella, O. pseudotamariciella, O. kalahariensis, O. sattleri; the plutelliformis-group includes O. triangulella, O. antipyramis, O. singula, O. basistriga, O. plutelliformis, O. grisea, O. sieversi; the cerostomatella-group includes O. acutivalva,O. afghana, O. angulatella, O. cerostomatella, O. cornifrons, O. curvella, O. mixolitha, O. mongolica, O. novicornifrons, O. zhengi, O. zhongningensis; the ornatella-group includes O. ochraceofusca, O. ornatella, O. sinica, O. zepuensis, O. miniscula. Based on the result of the cladistic analysis, the relationships of fourteen areas were derived, which shows that the history of Old Mediterranean Region is complicated. It is also recognized that dispersal is an important process, through which the species of the genus Ornativalva achieved their geographic distribution.
    Plant tolerance against insect pests and its mechanisms
    CHEN Jian-Ming, YU Xiao-Ping, CHENG Jia-An, ZHENG Xu-Song, XU Hong-Xing, LU Zhong-Xian<, ZHANG Jue-Feng, CHEN Lie-Zhong
    2005, 48(2):  262-272. 
    Abstract ( 3776 )   PDF (302KB) ( 2196 )     
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    The paper reviewed meanings, examples, evolution and genetic traits of plant tolerance against insect pests and its potential mechanisms, as well as abiotic and biotic factors affecting expression of plant tolerance. Potential mechanisms of tolerance including photosynthetic activity, reallocation of available assimilates, change in inner hormone, compensatory growth and activation of dormant meristems, utilization of stored reserves, and changes in plant phenology and plant architecture after the damage. It has been found that there is no direct relationship between photosynthetic activity change of plants after insect pest damage and its tolerance:  for some plants the photosynthetic activity is increased, some unaffected, or even reduced. After damage, assimilates of tolerant plants are utilized to the greatest extent, dormant meristems is activated and vercompens ation is induced. Insect damage induces a significantly increased supply of leaf cytokinins or root_derived cytokinins in damage place of tolerant plants. Less change in plant phenology may be one of the more widespread mechanisms of tolerance. Plant size, leaf morphology, root_shoot rations, stem number and so on are related to its tolerance. Main factors affecting tolerance expression are  temperature, global CO2 levels, soil nutrient available levels, agrochemicals, plant ages, distribution type and feeding strategies of insects, plant mutualisms, pollinators, endophytic fungi, mycorrhizal fungi and facilitating plants.  Under different temperatures the same plants may have different tolerance to the same pest species. The main cause is that change of temperature results in allocation and reallocation of available assimilates and effects of spiracle closing on gas exchange and photosynthetic ability. Plants grown in high CO2 concentration has stronger tolerance. Soil nutrient level has stronger effects on plant tolerance expression than temperature. High concentration of phosphorus and potassium increases tolerance level. The distribution type of insects within a field can affect plant compensation for damage, and feeding pattern of insects, pollinator movement, infection of endophytic fungi and mycorrhizal fungi can also influence plant tolerance. The importance and application prospects of plant tolerance in integrated pest management were also discussed.
    Discontinuous gas exchange in insects
    YAO Qing, SHEN Zuo-Rui
    2005, 48(2):  273-278. 
    Abstract ( 3222 )   PDF (167KB) ( 1521 )     
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    Many insects exchange respiratory gas cyclically and discontinuously. According to the opening or closing spiracle, a typical discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) has three distinct phases: the closed period  with little or no external gas exchange, the flutter period  during which oxygen enters tracheae and little CO2 escapes and the open period  during which lots of CO2 escape. This paper reviews the characteristics of DGC and the effect of insect activities, temperature and mass on DGC, and discusses the evolutionary and adaptive meanings of DGC related to respiratory water loss, hypoxic or hypercapnic environments.
    Cheiracus sulcatus, a newly found invasive eriophyoid mite damaging rice in Guangdong Province, South China
    HONG Xiao-Yue, XUE XiaoFeng, ZHOU Yi-Jun, TONG Guang-Yuan
    2005, 48(2):  279-284. 
    Abstract ( 3475 )   PDF (16707KB) ( 2381 )     
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    An invasive eriophyoid mite was newly found damaging rice plants in Shaoguan City, Guangdong Province, China for the past two years. First reported in northern Thailand, the mite Cheiracus sulcatusKeifer might invade China in recent years and has caused serious damage to rice in Guangdong. The mite is re-described, illustrated and its symptoms on rice are presented. Pest risk analyses and suggestions are made to remind local technicians and farmers of the risk of this mite spreading across southern China, southwestern and eastern China.
    Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the life-history traits of post-diapause adults in the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly
    WANG Xiao-Ping, XUE Fang-Sen, GE Feng, ZHOU Cheng-Ai, YOU Lan-Shao
    2005, 48(2):  285-289. 
    Abstract ( 2764 )   PDF (195KB) ( 1388 )     
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    The cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly, is a serious pest of crucifers in China. The beetle aestivates and hibernates as adult in the soil. The incidence of diapause is mainly controlled by temperature and photoperiod. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the life history traits of post-diapause adults in C. bowringi were investigated under laboratory conditions. At 25℃, survivorship, longevity, daily egg production, mean number of eggs laid per female per day and total number of eggs laid per female of post-diapause adults had no significant difference between under L14∶D10 and under L12∶D12. Under L14∶D10, the lifehistory traits of post-diapause adults differed significantly at different temperatures (18℃, 22℃, 25℃). The total number of eggs laid and mean number of eggs laid per female per day of post-diapause adults decreased, whereas the longevity of females significantly increased with temperature decreasing. Diapause could be reinduced in a few individuals at 18℃. 
    Inhibitory effect of cupferron on the activity of polyphenoloxidase from Pieris rapae(L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)
    XUE Chao-Bin, WANG Qin, KE Li-Na, CHEN Qing-Xi, LUO Wan-Chun
    2005, 48(2):  290-294. 
    Abstract ( 3082 )   PDF (185KB) ( 1391 )     
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    The kinetic properties of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from Pieris rapae (L.) were studied after the enzyme was partially purified by 35% saturated (NH4)2SO4 and chromatographed on a Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. Meanwhile, the effects of PPO on the oxidation of L-DOPA by adding copper ion or cupferron were also studied. The results showed that the activity of PPO was enhanced by Cu2+ in the concentration of 0-0.100 mmol/L; however, the activity was inhibited by the same ion when the concentration was over 0.125 mmol/L, and the IC50 was estimated to be 0.651±0.022 mmol/L. The results also indicated that the reaction of cupferron with the PPO is a reversible course with remaining enzyme activity, the inhibitory mechanism belongs to be the competitive type and the IC50 was estimated to be 0.100±0.012 mmol/L. Furthermore, the equilibrium constant for cupferron was determined to be 0.076±0.013 mmol/L. 
    Analysis of protein patterns from embryo of silkworm Bombyx mori at earlier stage by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
    YAN Xin-Pei, ZHONG Bo-Xiong, XU Meng-Kui, LIANG Jian-She,SHEN Fei-Ying
    2005, 48(2):  295-300. 
    Abstract ( 2759 )   PDF (10343KB) ( 1220 )     
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    The proteins during earlier stages of embryo (before the head thorax differentiation  embryo) and their changes were analyzed using silkworm Bombyx mori variety P50 as experimental material by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and image analysis system to analyze the change of total proteins from silkworm embryo. It was discovered that two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of protein from the critical development Ⅱ  stage embryo to the shortening  stage embryo stayed basically stable, and only a small number of the protein spots existed in the critical development Ⅱ  stage embryo disappeared at four earlier embryo stages of incubation, which only accounted for 22.80%, but the protein spots which disappeared at 2 last embryos of incubation accounted for 48.18%; 100 different protein spots from the neural groove appearance, abdominal outgrowth appearance, labrum appearance and shortening stage embryo can be detected and most of these protein spots disappeared in the embryos closely followed. The results suggested these different proteins might relate to the characteristics of corresponding embryo body development.
    Cytochrome P450 CO difference spectra in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)
    YU Cai-Hong, GAO Xi-Wu
    2005, 48(2):  301-304. 
    Abstract ( 3261 )   PDF (400KB) ( 1457 )     
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    The CO difference spectra of cytochrome P450 (P450) in midgut and fat body of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), were investigated. The experiment indicated with traditional methods for quantifying cytochrome P450, the result was not easy to repeat even to the same sample. The interval between CO addition and measurement greatly influenced the value of A450nm-490nm There was one to sixteenfold differences in optical density. In repetitive analysis on CO difference spectra of P450 in midgut and fat body, it was found that the optical density difference between 450 nm and 490 nm increased within a period of time and then decreased gradually. It was concluded that the parameter of the maximum optical density difference between 450nm and 490 nm was most accurate in determining the content of P450.
    Identification of the major allergen in Periplaneta americana by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS
    HU Chuan, LIU Zhi-Gang, LI Jin-Sheng, HAN Qing-Guo, LIN Li-Feng, YIN Wei-Xiong
    2005, 48(2):  305-309. 
    Abstract ( 3374 )   PDF (293KB) ( 1526 )     
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    A new method to identify allergen of Periplaneta americana with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS was established.  The protein with molecular weight of 74 kD from
    P. americana was purified by sequential chromatography of two steps including ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. After ingel digestion of allergen,the tryptic peptide mapping of allergen was obtained by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The data were then searched against NCBInr database using MS/MS Ions search (http://www.matrixscience.com). We compared the results of identification of 74 kD protein from the crude extract of P. americana and  from  the purified protein to evaluate the effect of purification. Our data showed that the purified protein with molecular weight of 74 kD is the major allergen of P. americana. The steps of chromatography are effective to remove the other protein with the same size as the purified protein. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of the major allergen from P. americana by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The research indicated that the MS is simple and universal for the quality control of naturally purified allergen.   
    Meioses in twelve species of Cercopoidea (Insecta: Homoptera) from China
    TIAN Run-Gang, ZHANG Ya-Lin, YUAN Feng
    2005, 48(2):  310-313. 
    Abstract ( 3051 )   PDF (298KB) ( 1333 )     
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    Meioses in twelve species of Chinese spittle bugs were studied. The results indicated that their chromosome numbers are varied from 2n=16 to 30, and sex determination are all XO type. Karyotype characteristics of Cercopoidea are that: (1) Chromosome volumes are small, chromosome numbers are much varied, most  species have higher chromosome numbers, and the predominant type is 2n=26(24+XO). (2) Translocation occurs very frequently. Fragmentation induced by translocation to increase chromosome numbers may be the main mechanism of karyotype evolution in this superfamily. (3) Prophase Ⅰ during meiosis has typical bouquet stage but without diffuse stage, similar to Cicadelloidea, Membracoidea and Cicadoidea, but different from Fulgoroidea. The relationship of superfamilies in Auchenorrhyncha may be Fulgoroidea +{Cicadoidea+[Cercopoidea+ Cicadelloidea+Membracoidea)]}.
    Effects of the chewing tablets of oligochitosan from housefly larvae in lowering hyperlipemia
    HUANG Wen, ZHOU Xing-Miao, ZHANG Chang-Yu, LEI Chao-Liang
    2005, 48(2):  314-318. 
    Abstract ( 2884 )   PDF (142KB) ( 1214 )     
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    To evaluate the effects of lowering hyperlipemia of the chewing tablets of oligochitosan from housefly larvae and assess its security, 50 rats were divided into 5 experimental groups. One control group was fed with common feed, another control group was  fed with high fattiness feed, and three treatment groups were fed with different dosage of tablets of oligochitosan from housefly larvae and high fattiness feed, respectively. After 28 days, the content of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC)in the serum of rats were measured. The acute toxicity of the chewing tablets of oligochitosan was studied according to the guidelines of Chinese Traditional Medicine Pre-clinical Trial. The toxicosis reaction and death number of the mouse were recorded successively for 7 days, and then its LD50 were calculated accordingly. The results showed that when rats were treated with the chewing tablets of oligochitosan, the contents of TC, TG in rat serum decreased remarkably but HDLC increased significantly. The results suggest that the chewing tablets of oligochitosan from housefly larvae may assist in lowering  hyperlipemia. The result of acute toxicity study showed its LD50 exceeded 10 g/kg·bw, which indicated that the chewing tablets was a safe product.