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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
11 July 2005, Volume 48 Issue 3
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Characteristics of degeneration and apoptosis of silk gland during the larval_pupal metamorphosis in the silkworm,Bombyx mori
    ZHONG Yang-Jin1,2, ZENG Lin1,2, HUANG Zhi-Jun1, LIU Ji-Ping1, DENG Xiao-Juan1, YANG Wan-Ying1, CAO Yang1,2*, GU Shi-Hong3
    2005, 48(3):  319-324. 
    Abstract ( 3827 )   PDF (10925KB) ( 1607 )     
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    The characteristics of degeneration and apoptosis of silk glands, during the larval-pupal metamorphosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori were studied by the general morphological observation, the molecular methods, and in vitro cultivation with 20-hydroxyecdysone and cycloheximide. The microscopic observation showed that silk gland degeneration gradually occurred during the spinning period. Analysis using DNA ladder electrophoresis indicated that programmed cell death might be involved in gland degeneration. In vitro incubation of silk glands from larvae of  day 6 of the last instar  with 20-hydroxyecdysone showed an accelerated apoptosis as compared with those in controls, indicating that the pulses of 20-hydroxyecdysone before larval-pupal metamorphosis trigger genetic regulatory hierarchies that mediate apoptosis and hydrolysis.  From these results, it was concluded that molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone could turn on programmed cell death of the silk gland during larval-pupal metamorphosis.


    Microstructural adaptation of Zonocerus variegates (L.) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) gut for food storage, digestion and absorption
    Bassey E. AKPAN1, Tony G.OKORIE2
    2005, 48(3):  325-330. 
    Abstract ( 2974 )   PDF (10073KB) ( 1295 )     
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     Micromorphological examination of the gut wall of Zonocerus variegatus has shown variations in the wall structure of the crop, midgut and hindgut. The crop is folded longitudinally when empty. It is lined luminally by a cuticular layer. Behind this layer there are small polyhedral cells made into clusters by the longitudinal fold. Three to five fat bundles of striated muscles surround the crop. The midgut which consists of anterior gastric caeca, posterior gastric caeca and ventriculus is cuticle free. Its epithelium is of columnar cells with brush borders. The midgut cells were classified into regenerative, young, resting, extruding and erupting cells depending on the characteristics of their nuclei. The resting cells were the most abundant (42.59%). Anterior gastric caeca, posterior gastric caeca and ventriculus had similar cells. There was a significant difference in the thickness of the epithelia of the six nymphal stages (P<0.05), being thinner at first and second instar nymphs than third, fourth and fifth. The mean thickness of epithelia of sixth instar nymphs observed at 2 day intervals were the same. The hindgut has cuticular layer too, but the underlying epithelium is of columnar cells. The hindgut cells are therefore presumed to help in digestion and absorption of food. Storage, digestive and absorptive functions performed in the pre-hindgut region are suggested to be summarised by the hindgut activities.

    Effects of host age at the time of oviposition, superparasitism and host starvation after parasitism on the growth of Cotesia plutellae larvae and their teratocytes
    BAI Su-Fen1,2, CHEN Xue-Xin1*, CHENG Jia-An1, FU Wen-Jun3, HE Jun-Hua1
    2005, 48(3):  331-336. 
    Abstract ( 2840 )   PDF (186KB) ( 1348 )     
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    The host Plutella xylostella L. parasitoid Cotesia plutellae (Kurdj.)system was used to study the effects of superparasitism,host age at the time of oviposition and host starvation after parasitism on the growth of the parasitoid larvae and their teratocytes in host larvae. The results showed that the percentage of pseudoparasitism increased and the developmental duration of parasitoid larvae was variable when the 4th instar host larvae were parasitized as compared to those when the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae parasitized. More teratocytes were present in host haemocoel with their diameters distinctly decreased after the host larvae were superparasitized as compared to those normally parasitized only once, and the growth of parasitoid larvae was obviously stunted with the increase of degree of superparasitism. After the parasitized host larvae were starved for 62 h, the number of teratocytes decreased and the activity of teratocytes was reduced in the host larvae, and the growth of parasitoid was also arrested at the same time, suggesting that there is a positive interaction relationship among the growth of host larvae, parasitoids and teratocytes. These results indicated that superparasitism, host age at the time of oviposition and host nutritional status after parasitism had obvious effects on the growth of the parasitoid larvae and their teratocytes in host larvae.

    Expression, purification, and polyclonal antibody preparation of Manduca sexta chitinase
    HAO Chan-Juan1, CHAI Bao-Feng1, WANG Wei1, SUN Yi2, LIANG Ai-Hua1*
    2005, 48(3):  337-341. 
    Abstract ( 2674 )   PDF (288KB) ( 1260 )     
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    The chitinase gene of Manduca sexta was cloned into the fusion expression vector pET_28a and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3)host cells. After the expression strain was induced for 6-8 hours by 0.5 mmol/L IPTG, the fusion protein chitinase was expressed and detected in inclusion bodies. After denature and renature procedure in Ni2+-NTA affinity chromatography column, soluble chitinase was obtained. The authenticity of in vitro renatured protein was confirmed by Western blot. The inclusion body protein band in SDS-PAGE was excised and the protein was extracted. Then the purified protein was injected into New Zealand rabbits to induce immunoreaction. The induction with two injections lasted for 45 days, and then the anti-serum was prepared. ELISA analysis showed that the titer for this polyclonal antibody was 1∶20 000 Western blot analysis showed that the antibody reacted specifically to the expressed chitinase protein.


    Construction of recombined plasmid carrying Cry1Ac gene and expression of insecticidal activities in Bacillus subtilis
    LIU Ji-Ning1,2, LIU Xian-Jin1*, YU Xiang-Yang1, PENG Zheng-Qiang2
    2005, 48(3):  342-346. 
    Abstract ( 2659 )   PDF (237KB) ( 1588 )     
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     The full length sequence of the promoter and Cry1Ac gene were obtained by PCR with two pairs of unique primers Cry1Ac F/R and Pxy F/R respectively, which were designed according to the Cry1Ac gene and promoter sequence of xylase operon from Bacillus subtilis 168 Then, the fused translational expression vector PxylR-Cry1Ac was constructed using overlapping PCR technique with the primers pair PxyF/Cry1AcR and the mixture of above PCR production. After being digested by SphⅠ and BamHⅠ, PxylR-Cry1Ac expression vector was inserted into E. coli-B. thuringiensis shuttle vector pHT315, and the resulted recombinant plasmids were named as pCry1Ac315 The recombinant plasmids were transferred into B. subtilis laboratory strain JAAS01D. Efficient expression of the Cry1Ac gene in the engineered JAAS01D-1Ac was proved with restriction enzyme analysis, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis analysis and insecticidal activity assay.

    Fluorescent differential display analysis of the gene s3a related to NPV resistance in Bombyx mori L.
    XU Jia-Ping1,2, CHEN Ke-Ping1*,YAO Qin1, XU Qing-Gang1, LIU Xiao-Yong1, GAO Gui-Tian1
    2005, 48(3):  347-352. 
    Abstract ( 2615 )   PDF (551KB) ( 1283 )     
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    Using fluorescent differential display (FDD) technique, the differential expression of genes related to BmNPV resistance in highly resistant strain NB, highly susceptible strain 306 and near isogenic line 306NNZZ of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. was analyzed. Based on the differential display bands, a 702 bp fragment named C18702 was cloned and confirmed by Northern blot hybridizations. The sequence was then electrically extended based on homology comparison with NCBI ESTs, and further confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers. A novel gene was characterized and revealed to encode a putative BmS3A protein. The gene had 97.7% homology to Spodoptera frugiperda S3A, 94% homology to Heliothis virescens S3A and 75.3% homology to Drosophila melanogaster S3A, and was named B. mori s3a(Bms3a).   It had higher expression in the highly resistant strain and near isogenic line than in the highly susceptible silkworm strain, and it also had higher expression in BmNPV treated strains than untreated strains. The results suggested that Bms3a is involved in silkworm BmNPV resistance.
    Purification of insecticidal proteins from Xenorhabdus nematophila HB310 and detection of their insecticidal activity
    WANG Qin-Ying1, NANGONG Zi-Yan1, LU Xiu-Jun1, LI Xiu-Hua2, LI Guo-Xun1, CUI Long1
    2005, 48(3):  353-358. 
    Abstract ( 2868 )   PDF (267KB) ( 1254 )     
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     The extracts of extracellular and intracellular insecticidal proteins from Xenorhabdus nematophila HB310 strain, an entomopathogenic bacterium symbiotically associated with entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae, appeared high toxic activity by oral or injectable infection against several species of insects. Two oral insecticidal proteins, toxinⅠand toxinⅡ, and another haemocoel insecticidal protein, toxin Ⅲ with injectable activity were purified from the intracellular protein extract by native-PAGE. The same three protein toxins also were obtained from the extracellular protein extract. There was only a single band for any of toxins above, but the results of SDS-PAGE showed four bands for toxinⅠ, three bands for toxinⅡ and one band for toxin Ⅲ, respectively. Bioassay results indicated that the oral insecticidal activity of toxinⅡ was higher than that of toxinⅠ to Helicoverpa armigera neonates. The injectable hemocoelic potency (LD50) of toxinⅢ was 0.18 μg/larva against Galleria mellonella fifth-instar larvae. The toxicity of toxinⅡ was stable under 50℃ in 10 min. The toxin Ⅲ was heat-stable to 70℃ in 10 min.

    Partial purification of microsomal P450s from midgut of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera
    ZHENG Ming-Qi1,2,ZHANG Wen-Ji2, QIU Xing-Hui1*, LENG Xin-Fu1
    2005, 48(3):  359-364. 
    Abstract ( 2499 )   PDF (279KB) ( 1381 )     
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    A protocol comprising PEG8000 precipitation, high performance hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HPHIC) and high performance ion exchange chromatography (HPIEC) for separation and purification of cytochrome P450 in the cotton bollworm,  Helicoverpa armigera, was introduced. PEG8000 precipitation was found suitable for pre-fractionation of the midgut microsomes P450 in H. armigera. The favorable conditions of HPHIC and HPIEC for purifying microsomal P450 were established. Following purification, four proteins with molecular weight of 58 kD,  47 kD, 56 kD and 45 kD were detected in the fractions with cytochrome P450 absorbance peak by silverstaining SDS-PAGE gel. The recovery rate of P450s was 14.3%, and the P450 purity was increased by 39-fold.

    Effect of host plants on the development, survivorship and reproduction of Encarsia bimaculata (Hymenoptera:Aphelinidae), a parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci
    QIU Bao-Li, REN Shun-Xiang
    2005, 48(3):  365-369. 
    Abstract ( 2512 )   PDF (208KB) ( 1340 )     
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    Encarsia bimaculata  Heraty & Polaszek, a parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci
    (Gennadius) biotype B, was recently discovered in South China. The development, survivorship, longevity and reproductive biology of E. bimaculata parasitizing B. tabaci on eggplant and hibiscus at 26±0.5℃ were studied in the laboratory. The developmental time of E. bimaculata from egg to adult was longer on hibiscus (13.6 d) than on eggplant (12.1 d), and its survival rates from 2nd instar to adult emergence were 93.2% and 91.1% on hibiscus and eggplant, respectively. The mean longevities of E. bimaculata female adults ranged from 6.6 d on eggplant to 8.0 d on hibiscus, and the mean lifetime fecundities on the two plants were 27.6 and 35.8 eggs, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of E. bimaculata population at the tested temperature was higher on hibiscus (0.2081) than on eggplant (0.1892). The results indicated that E. bimaculata performed better in development, survival and reproduction on hibiscus, a glabrous plant, than on eggplants, a hirsute plant.



    Mass trapping of the overwintering generation stripped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with the synthetic sex pheromone in northeastern China
    JIAO Xiao-Guo, XUAN Wei-Jian, SHENG Cheng-Fa*
    2005, 48(3):  370-374. 
    Abstract ( 3122 )   PDF (180KB) ( 1979 )     
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    The suppressing effect of water traps baited with a 41∶5∶4 blend of Z11-16:Ald, Z13-18:Ald and Z9-16:Ald for mass trapping of the stripped stem borer (SSB),Chilo suppressalis (Walker) was evaluated in green rice production bases in Jilin Province of China in 2002 and 2003. The investigation showed that populations of the male SSB were reduced by 84.54% and 83.75% in 2002 and 2003 respectively, compared with the untreated control plots. The sex ratio (female∶male) of the SSB population in the trapping plots largely skewed to female. Also the female mating percentage and the density of the egg masses in the trapping plots was reduced significantly, compared with that of the control plots in both years. Correspondingly, the infestation levels of the withered leaf sheaths (WLS), dead heart (DH) and the white head (WH) plants destroyed by SSB larvae in 2002 and 2003 were notably reduced. The combined results indicate that mass trapping with the synthetic sex pheromone is a promising agent against SSB.



    Screening substitute hosts for mass rearing of Scleroderma sichuanensis Xiao (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)
    HUANG Qiong1, ZHOU Zu-Ji1*, YANG Wei1, HU Jie2, YANG Chun-Ping1
    2005, 48(3):  375-379. 
    Abstract ( 2932 )   PDF (165KB) ( 1496 )     
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    Suitability of 10 candidate insects as substitute hosts for mass rearing of Scleroderma sichuanensis Xiao was systematically tested by inoculating the wasp on the hosts directly or after anaesthetized with different anaesthetics in the laboratory.  The tested hosts included Callidium villosulum Fairmaire, Semanotus sinoauster Gressit, Bacchisa dioica (Fairmaire), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), Sesamia inferens (Walker), Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenée, Chinolyda flagellicornis (Smith), Tenebrio molitor L. and Musca domestica vicina Macquart. The parasitization rate, the wasp emergence rate (%), the immature duration of the wasp, the female proportion in offspring (%), the fecundity and the survival rate(%) of female wasps kept at 8-10℃ and 50%-60% RH were compared for the wasps inoculated on different hosts. The results showed that of above indices, only two indices, i.e. the parasitization rate and the wasp emergence (%), might have  significant difference between different hosts or the same hosts with different anaesthetic treatments and could reflect the substitute host suitability.  Two proper substitute host species, i.e. O. furnacalis and T. molitor, for breeding S. sichuanensis were selected from the 10 tested hosts, which laid a foundation for mass rearing and application of S. sichuanensis.

    The availability of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidaseI gene for the distinction of forensically important flies in China
    CAI Ji-Feng1, LIU Min1, YING Bin-Wu1, DENG Reng-Li2, DONG Jian-Guo3, ZHANG Lin1, TAO Tao1, PAN Hong-Fu1, YAN Hong-Tao1, LIAO Zhi-Gang1
    2005, 48(3):  380-385. 
    Abstract ( 3265 )   PDF (208KB) ( 1185 )     
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    Sarcosaphagous flies are frequently found on dead bodies shortly after death. Species within this family differ in their developmental times, so an accurate identification of every species is necessary for the correct estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI). Identification of specimens is traditionally performed using their morphological features. The morphological similarity of sarcosaphagous flies especially their eggs, larva and pupae, poses a challenge for forensic entomologists. Therefore a molecular method was established for species identification. In this study, A 278 base pair region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) coding for cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COⅠ) was investigated for identification of the following forensically important species of sarcosaphagous flies from western China, including Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala(Fabricius), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), and Boettcherisca peregrina (RobineauDesvoidy).  The results indicated that the COⅠ region sequenced allowed identification of major species, providing separation of congeneric species with high support. In contrast, the data could not distinguish taxa from the same species group, i.e. the L. sericata and L. cuprina groups because of low sequence divergence.

    Molecular identification of six Bactrocera species (Diptera:Tephritidae) based on mtDNA
    ZHU Zhen-Hua1,2, YE Hui1*, ZHANG Zhi-Ying1
    2005, 48(3):  386-390. 
    Abstract ( 3458 )   PDF (157KB) ( 1683 )     
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    The mtDNA Cytb genes of 6 fruit fly species, including Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, B. correcta, B. tau, B. scutellata and B. scutellaris, were sequenced. Based on the analysis of mtDNA Cytb 420 bp sequences from 72 individuals of the 6 species, we identified 38 haplotypes and detected 116 variable sites, of which 30 variable sites were highly conserved. The studies of the relationship between the 6 fruit flies and their respective identification sites suggested that mtDNA cytb sequences could be used as the molecular marker in identification of the 6 fruit fly species.

    A morphological study on female copulatory tubes of the genus Tetraphleps Fieber (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from China
    KE Yun-Ling, BU Wen-Jun*
    2005, 48(3):  391-395. 
    Abstract ( 2579 )   PDF (187KB) ( 1187 )     
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    The identification of flower bugs (Anthocoridae) is mostly based on characteristics of male genitalia, and it is believed that it is difficult to identify species based on females solely. Female copulatory tube of five known species of the genus Tetraphleps Fieber from China, including T. aterrimus (Sahlberg), T. galchanoides Ghauri, T. pilosulus Bu et Zheng, T. parallelus Bu et Zheng and T. yulongensis Bu et Zheng, were studied and compared. The result demonstrates that the structure of female copulatory tube in the same species is steady, whereas they differ distinctly between species. Therefore, copulatory tube can be used as a credible character in identifying species of this genus.

    A systematic study on the genus Pseudacroclita Oku Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae)
    ZHANG Ai-Huan, LI Hou-Hun*
    2005, 48(3):  396-400. 
    Abstract ( 2714 )   PDF (4090KB) ( 1361 )     
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    This paper deals with four species of the genus Pseudacroclita Oku, including two new species, i. e. Pseudacroclita projecta sp. nov. and Pseudacroclita micrancistra sp. nov., and one newly recorded species, Pseudacroclita luteispecula (Kuznetsov), from China. The adult photographs and genitalia figures of all the species are provided, and a key to the species is given.

    Harm of introducing the western honeybee Apis mellifera L. to the Chinese honeybee Apis cerana F. and its ecological impact
    YANG Guan-Huang
    2005, 48(3):  401-406. 
    Abstract ( 3604 )   PDF (162KB) ( 2495 )     
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    The author elucidated the situation of the Chinese honeybee Apis cerana F., which was seriously harmed by the western honeybee Apis mellifera L. introduced to China from Italy and other countries since 1896. The distribution area of the Chinese honeybees has reduced by over 75%, and population number reduced over 80% under the competition by the western honeybees. The decrease of the Chinese honeybees results in the reduction of plant total pollination and plant diversity. The author proposed to set up national nature reserves for protecting the genetic features of the Chinese honeybees, breed new Chinese honeybee varieties with fine characteristics as the western honeybees but keeping their local features using transgenic technology, and increase the Chinese honeybee population number gradually.   
    Feeding habits and host plant differentiation of flea beetles
    ZHAI Zong-Zhao1,2, GE Si-Qin1, YANG Xing-Ke1*
    2005, 48(3):  407-417. 
    Abstract ( 3817 )   PDF (309KB) ( 1739 )     
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    The flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) are phytophagous specialists with great economic significance. This paper deals with the latest progress in their feeding habits and differentiation. Exact meaning of host specialization is explained in details, and up to 85% genera of Alticinae are specialized, despite their broad host range. It is generally believed that Alticinae and Galerucinae, the specialists, are of recent origin from Chrysomelinae accompanying feeding differentiation which is thought to be important in the process. There are several models to explain the occurrence of the phenomena of feeding differentiation, among which “cost of generalism hypothesis" gets more and more experimental support. The insects are more likely to switch to plants with similar plant chemicals to their native host plants, in the forms of host shift, host expansion and host race formation. Host plants differentiation accelerates sympatric speciation. The research will also contribute to the coevolution theory of insectplant interaction.

    Recent advances in chemosensory proteins of insects
    LIU Jin-Xiang, ZHONG Guo-Hua, XIE Jian-Jun, GUAN Shan, HU Mei-Ying*
    2005, 48(3):  418-426. 
    Abstract ( 3312 )   PDF (263KB) ( 1811 )     
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    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are small soluble acidic proteins formed during long evolution and abundantly distributed in antennae, tarsi and other sensory appendages. Chemosensory proteins among insects are well conserved and the identity is generally 30%-90%. They are believed to be involved in chemical communication, including perception, identification, transport and transduction of semiochemicals from environment (including olfaction, taste and others) and may be associated with regulation of circadian rhythms and maturation of tissue or appendage. Recent advances in chemosensory proteins of insects are reviewed in this paper, including evolution significance, localization of distribution and expression, biochemical characteristics, molecular structure, physiological function and research methods. Clearly, further researches on chemosensory proteins are required, which are significant to elucidate the essence of insect behavior and semiochemicals, explore the new approach for pest management and utilization of beneficial insects, and develop new insect behavior regulators.



    Advances in the studies on semiochemicals and olfactory receptor mechanism in adults of cerambycid beetles
    JIANG Wang-Jin1, JI Bao-Zhong1*, LIU Shu-Wen2, SONG Jie2
    2005, 48(3):  427-436. 
    Abstract ( 3285 )   PDF (290KB) ( 2158 )     
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    Advances in the studies on semiochemicals and olfactory recepting mechanism in adults of cerambycid beetle were reviewed. The sex pheromones produced by the female or male are classified into 3 types, namely, shortrange, longrange and contact sex pheromones. Up to now, sex pheromones of about 31 species of cerambycid beetles have been studied. Among them, components of sex pheromones of 13 species have been identified. The variation of sex pheromone exists in the same species, e.g., the proportions of components of sex pheromone produced by the longhorned beetles of the same species from different places are different. Antennae are the main perceptive organs to receive sex pheromones and can also be used as the morphological indicator for differentiating communication ways in adults. Obvious sexual dimorphism is accompanied by the strong sex pheromones. Longhorned beetles use host pheromones (such as terpenoids, alcoholates and aromatics) to find and select host. Trap catches in field will be increased by a combination of sex and host pheromones. Other sorts of pheromones (such as heterospecific pheromones, repellent pheromones and ovipositiondeterring pheromones) can raise the efficiency of cerambycid hostselecting. RNs of cerambycid olfactory sensilla located on the antennae can be classified as 3 types. The odour information is passed to the CNS by neurone populations. The information is conveyed to the brain by labeled line or acrossfiber patter. There is no report on the studies of cerambycid OBP.


    Application of electrical penetration graph (EPG) in entomological studies and new findings
    LUO Chen1, YUE Mei1,2, XU Hong-Fu2*, ZHANG Zhi-Li1
    2005, 48(3):  437-443. 
    Abstract ( 3695 )   PDF (200KB) ( 1922 )     
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    The electrical penetration graph (EPG) technology is more and more widely used in studying piercing sucking insects, such as aphid, whitefly, leafhopper and thrips. Especially for aphid and whitefly, it has been adopted to study host speciality, plant resistance and virus transmission. We reviewed the research progress and application prospects of EPG through examples of typical piercing sucking insects.


    Cloning and sequencing of midgut aminopeptidase N without glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor from larvae of Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner)
    SU Jian-Ya, SHEN Jin-Liang*
    2005, 48(3):  444-449. 
    Abstract ( 2666 )   PDF (300KB) ( 1204 )     
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    cDNAs of aminopeptidase N (APN) from Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) were cloned and sequenced. One aminopeptidase N (APN1) was identified. This aminopeptidase N had 3 220 nucleotides with a 3 042 bp open reading frame that encodes 1 014 amino acids. The putative amino acid sequence shares the consensus zinc binding/gluzincin motif HEXXHX18E and a hydrophobic signal sequence with 20 amino acids in Nterminal region common to all aminopeptidases, but no glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor signal sequence in Cterminal region of APN1 was found. The sequences reported here had been deposited in the GenBank database (Accession number: AY358034).

    Effects of Bt toxin on EAG responses of male moths of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner) to sex pheromone
    MU Lan-Fang, DONG Shuang-Lin*
    2005, 48(3):  450-454. 
    Abstract ( 2280 )   PDF (156KB) ( 1315 )     
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    The thirdinstar larvae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), were raised to adult with artificial diet containing Bt Cry1Ac toxin at 40%-50% lethal dose. Electroantennogram (EAG) responses were recorded for those survival male moths and untreated moths. The results indicated that EAG values of Bt toxin treated males to Z9-16:Ald, Z11-16:Ald and their binary mixture (Z11-16:Ald∶Z9-16:Ald=97∶3) were all higher than those of controls, and that differences of the EAG values between treatments and controls became greater as the concentration of the sex pheromone components increased. These results were meaningful in evaluation and implementation of the “refuge" strategy used to postpone the Bt cotton resistance by the cotton bollworm.


    Development of an in vitro culture system of primary tissues and cells from embryo of Laodelphax striatellusFallen
    CHEN Lai, WU Zu-Jian*, FU Guo-Sheng, LIN Qi-Ying, XIE Lian-Hui
    2005, 48(3):  455-459. 
    Abstract ( 2706 )   PDF (5277KB) ( 1394 )     
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    To build cell layer line of Laodelphax striatellus Fallen, seven different full culture media, including MM medium, lactalbumin hydrolysate, yeast extract and fetal bovine serum (FBS) based on Grace medium, were developed and tested to culture the tissues and cells from embryo of L. striatellus. The results indicated that these tissues and cells could survive keeping close to the bottom of medium for at least 1-4 weeks, and for even 2 months in the medium No. 5, which was made up of one Grace medium, one MM medium respectively and 20% FBS. Furthermore, effective hydrolyzation of the tissues was reached when they were pretreated for 5-10 min with 0.25% trypsin under the condition of pH 8.0 at 37℃. The suitable culture recipe to the tissues and cells from embryo of L. striatellus and a good method to separate tissues were proposed.

    Oviposition preference ofMonochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to host plants
    HAO De-Jun1, ZHANG Yong-Hui1, DAI Hua-Guo1*, WANG Yan2
    2005, 48(3):  460-464. 
    Abstract ( 3191 )   PDF (152KB) ( 1455 )     
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    Monochamus alternatus Hope is a primary vector of pinewood nematode, the causative agent of pine wilt disease. Its oviposition behavior is influenced by semiochemicals during its searching for host plants to feed and oviposit. A series of selection tests were conducted in the laboratory to measure the impacts of plant volatiles and insect pheromone on oviposition preference of M. alternatus.The results showed that M. alternatus had the highest oviposition preference to Pinus thunbergii, while the beetle had the least oviposition preference to P. massoniana. There was significant difference in oviposition preference to P. thunbergii and P. massoniana, but no significant difference when the former two trees were compared with P. taeda andP. elliottii.The trees infested by pinewood nematode were more attractive to the female beetles than healthy trees. When supplied with scarmade bolts and healthy bolts simultaneously, the beetles deposited significantly fewer eggs on the former; when the females were provided with fecescoated bolts and healthy bolts simultaneously, they deposited significantly fewer eggs on the fecescoated bolts as well. The above experiments indicated semiochemicals may have influence on oviposition preference of the females. The result suggested promising potential for pest management by use of semiochemicals to regulate behavior in sawyer beetle management.

    Technique for organizing multi-queen colony of Apis mellifera ligustica, with observations on the rate of egg production of queens
    HU Fu-Liang1, JIN Shui-Hua2, ZHENG Huo-Qing1, ZHU Wei1, JIANG Quan-Qing2, FU Lin-Jie2, Randall HEPBURN3
    2005, 48(3):  465-468. 
    Abstract ( 2682 )   PDF (5615KB) ( 1941 )     
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    By means of biological and environmental induction, multi-queen colony was organized,  and the queens could move around peacefully and give normal egg_laying in the same laying area. Furthermore, the aim of making multi-queens living through winter was achieved in the experiment, which revised the conclusion that the artificial multi-queen colony could live together only for a few months and would not survive winter. The experiment results showed that the rate of egg production of a single treated queen was similar to that of untreated single one,and the rate of egg production of threequeen colony and fivequeen colony were 222.94% and 367.09% of that of the single queen colony, respectively. The biological significance of the multi-queen colony and the application prospect of this technique were discussed.

    Observation on antennal sensilla of Buprestis fairmairei Thery (Coleoptera,Buprestidae) with scanning electron microscopy
    LIU Yu-Shuang, SHI Fu-Ming
    2005, 48(3):  469-472. 
    Abstract ( 2924 )   PDF (5956KB) ( 1539 )     
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    Antennal sensilla ultrastructure, type and distribution of the buprestid, Buprestis fairmairei Thery, were studied using scanning electron microscope. The serrate antenna of Buprestis fairmairei consists of the scape, pedicel and 9 flagellomeres. Three types of sensilla chaetica, two types of sensilla trichodea, four types of sensilla basiconic and one type of sensilla gemmiformium were distinguished with the shapes and distribution of sensilla. Quantity and distribution of sensilla are different in each segment of antenna.