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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
07 September 2005, Volume 48 Issue 4
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Temperature sensitive periods and autonomy of pleiotropic effects of dlts, a conditional discless lethal mutation in Drosophila virilis
    Vladimir G. MITROFANOV, XUE Dong, YANG Chang-Ju,YAO Ying-Juan, CAI Wan-Lun
    2005, 48(4):  473-482. 
    Abstract ( 2478 )   PDF (6842KB) ( 1155 )     
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    A series of temperature shift experiments have been conducted with homo and/or hemizygous strains for temperature sensitive (ts) mutations of the discless, dlts in Drosophila virilis Sturt, where the restrictive temperature is 31℃, and the permissive temperature is 25℃. The temperature threshold is set at 29℃ and fluctuates between 25℃ and 31℃ at an interval of 2℃. The temperaturesensitive period (TSP) is determined by the analysis of both shift up and shift down experiments. Discrete TSPs for lethality are localized on the first, the second and the third larval instar for a 10 hr period after pupation with an interval of a few hours between TSP and the lethal phase (LP). TSPs for adult morphology defects are localized on the second, the third larval instars and the early pupal period. Animals during TSPs are subjected to 12 hr pulse, 24 hr pulse, and 48 hr pulse treatments respectively, and have produced a large number of defects. The defects include: eye scar, clumping pigment eye, small and lozenge shaped eye, missing facets, small wing, thick wing vein, shortened tarsal segments, fused leg segments, extra macrochaetae or bristles, missing antennal segments, and duplicating palpus and/or lacinia, with distinct patterns of eye, wing, bristle and leg defects observed within the third larval instar. Homoeotic mutants also occur in this period. Each defect has its own specific timedependent pattern. The patterns of damage are observed in imaginal tissue and all the defects are categorized into three classes: repeat, deletion and repeat and deletion happened at the same time. There is evidence from genetic somatics that there are some specific time patterns for dlts to produce the pleiotropic effects.

    Relationship between yeastlike symbiotes and amino acid requirements in the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Homoptera: Delphacidae)
    WANG Guo-Chao, FU Qiang, LAI Feng-Xiang, CHEN Ming-Xue, MOU Ren-Xiang, ZHANG Zhi-Tao
    2005, 48(4):  483-490. 
    Abstract ( 2985 )   PDF (291KB) ( 1757 )     
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    The aposymbiotic  Nilaparvata lugens Stål was obtained by three day high temperature treatment (35℃) and then reared on chemically defined diets with one of 20 amino acids deleted. The relative growth rate and number of yeastlike symbiotes of aposymbiotic  N. lugens were studied. The results showed that tenessential amino acids were more important for the growth of aposymbiotic N. lugens than ten non essential ones, and the number of yeast like symbiotes increased in N. lugens, especially in aposymbiotic ones, which were reared on diets with one of essential amino acids deleted. The amino acid composition and activity of transamidase in aposymbiotic N. lugens reared on the complete diet D-97 were also tested. There was no change in protein composition in aposymbiotic N. lugens, but the total amount of free amino acids increased significantly and the ratio of essential amino acids decreased, with the molar percentage of essential amino acids such as histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine and phenylalanine decreased markedly. The results suggested a relative reduction of the essential amino acids be an important factor on  hindering protein synthesis. The activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased obviously, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST) decreased distinctly. Combined with the result that glutamine increased remarkably, it was inferred that yeast like symbiotes may use glutamine as resource to synthesize essential amino acids.



    Effects of change in the content of sugars and free amino acids in transgenic cotton cultivars on the secretion amount and major nutritive components of honeydew of Aphis gossypii Glover
    YANG Yi-Zhong, LU Yan-Hui, XUE Wen-Jie, YU Yue-Shu, LI Xiao-Hui, WANG Feng, YANG Hai-Yan, LIU Yang
    2005, 48(4):  491-497. 
    Abstract ( 3307 )   PDF (210KB) ( 1780 )     
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    Based on three transgenic cotton cultivars“GK22”,“SK103” and “ZK310”and two non-transgenic, conventional cotton cultivars “SM3” and “SM12” as experimental materials, we analyzed the content of sugars and free amino acidsin these five cotton cultivars, and the secretion amount and the content of sugars and free amino acids of honeydew from Aphis gossypii Glover feeding on these five cotton varieties. The results showed the mean content of glucose, sucrose, maltose and all the soluble sugars decreased 61.76%, 89.05%,77.86% and 23.61%, respectively in the transgenic cotton cultivar “GK22” contrasted to the conventional cotton cultivars “SM3”, and decreased 14.15%,32.80%, 92.22%, 11.46% and 46.81%, 93.19%, 61.11%, 43.91%, respectively in the transgenic cotton cultivars “SK103”, “ZK310” contrasted to the conventional cotton cultivar “SM12”. There were also some differences between the mean content of each amino acid, fructose, rhamnose, trehalose and all the free amino acids in transgenic cottons and nontransgenic cottons, with some differences significant at 0.05 or 0.01 level. The results indicated non-organic insertion genes in the transgenic cottons had some influence on the synthesis of these sugars and free amino acids. The results also showed the mean amount of honeydew secreted by A. gossypii feeding on transgenic cotton variety “GK22” reduced by 40.54% contrasted to the non-transgenic cotton varieties “SM3”, and reduced by 22.67%, 30.0% respectively feeding on “SK103”, “ZK310”contrasted to “SM12”, but the mean amount of all amino acids of honeydew from A. gossypii feeding on transgenic cottons was larger than that from the conventional cotton cultivars. And the mean amount of soluble sugar, sucrose and every amino acid of honeydew from A. gossypii were different between transgenic and non-transgenic cotton cultivars.


    Isolation, purification and partial characterization of the β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase from the pupae of Helicoverpa armigera
    HUANG Xiao-Hong, CHEN Qing-Xi, YOU Min-Sheng, WANG Jun, GUAN Xiong
    2005, 48(4):  498-502. 
    Abstract ( 3545 )   PDF (222KB) ( 1325 )     
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    β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (EC3.2.1.52) was purified from the pupae of Helicoverpa armigera by ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatography on Sephadex G-200 and DEAE cellulose. The purified enzyme preparation was homogeneous as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It was found that the specific activity of the enzyme was 2 678.79 U/mg. The optimal pH value was 5.63 and the optimal temperature 55℃. The enzyme was stable in the pH ranges of 4 to 8 under 37℃. The enzyme follows typical Michaelis Menten kinetics for the hydrolysis of pNP-β-D-GlcNAc and the Km and Vm values were 0.16 mmol/L and 10.73 μmol·L-1·min-1, respectively. The activation energy of the enzyme for the hydrolysis of pNP-β-D-GlcNAc was 66.24 kJ/mol.

    Electroantennogram responses of the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella, to three plant volatiles and field trapping test
    WANG Xiang-Ping, FANG Yu-Ling, ZHANG Zhong-Ning
    2005, 48(4):  503-508. 
    Abstract ( 3589 )   PDF (216KB) ( 1511 )     
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    Electroantennogram (EAG) responses of the diamondback moth (DBM),Plutella xylostella to three plant volatiles, i.e. Z-3-hexen-1-ol (OH),Z-3-hexenyl cetate (ACTE) and allyl isothiocyanate (NCS), were tested in the laboratory. Tested with the volatiles at different concentrations of 0.008 μg/μL, 0.08 μg/μL, 0.2 μg/μL, 0.8 μg/μL, 8 μg/μL, 20 μg/μL and 40 μg/μL, DBM male or female had stronger responses to volatiles with higher concentration. Among the three volatiles, DBM had stronger response to NCS and ACTE. Responses to volatiles were different in male or female and in DBM mated or not. Field tests about aptures by the three volatiles with 6 μL per lure were conducted in Hubei province, China and in the suburb of Hanoi, Vietnam. DBM males were more attracted by ACTE and NCS at the two places at the beginning of the test, but the number of moths attracted by volatiles decreased quickly with time. Mixture of the three volatiles as 1∶1∶1 in volume also had good attractive activity to the diamondback moth. Few females were attracted by the three plant volatiles or their mixture.


    Electroantennogram responses of two parasitoid wasps and their host aphids to volatiles from soybean plants
    YAN Fu-Shun, YAN Yun-Hua, ZHANG Ying, HOU Zhao-Yuan, WANG Chen-Zhu
    2005, 48(4):  509-513. 
    Abstract ( 2852 )   PDF (196KB) ( 1227 )     
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    Electroantennogram (EAG) responses to several chemical volatiles  of soybean plant were investigated for the following four species of insects: 1) Aphis craccivora Koch and Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius); 2) Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall, the common nature enemy of Aphis glycines Matsumura which is the pest insect of soybean plant, and of A.craccivora which is not the pest insect of soybean plant; 3) Aphidius picipes Nees, the nature enemy of M.avenae which is not the pest insect of soybean plant. The results showed that L.fabarum related indirectly with soybean plant in nature was sensitive to the tested volatiles and their mixtures; the rest three species of insects irrelative to soybean plants in nature were not sensitive to the volatiles and their mixtures. This suggested the important function of plant volatiles in host searching of natural enemies of the phytophagous.

    Electroantennogram responses of Acantholyda posticalis Matsumura to volatiles of different trees
    ZHANG Tong-Xin, CUI Wei-Zheng, SUN Xu-Gen, ZHANG Wei-Guang, LIANG Zhong-Gui
    2005, 48(4):  514-517. 
    Abstract ( 2796 )   PDF (141KB) ( 1348 )     
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    With the MS302 analysis system for biological signals, the EAG response of Acantholyda posticalis Matsumura adult to volatiles of different tree species was assayed. The results showed that female A. posticalis adult was sensitive to Pinus tabulaeformis, P. densiflora and P. armandi, which it was addicted to. To volatiles of Pinus tabulaeformis, P. densiflora and P. armandi, the electrofrequency of the female adult was 45.2, 42.1 and 42.3 times per second, respectively and its electrovoltage was 1.022 mV, 1.139 mV and 0.706 mV, respectively. There was faint EAG response to the nonhost tree specie Platycladus orientalis, and no response to the air. The electrofrequency of female adult to different flux (1.7 mL/s, 17 mL/s, 85 mL/s) of the volatiles of P. tabulaeformis was 24.8, 45.2 and 46.6 times per second, respectively; its electrovoltage was 0.533 mV, 1.022 mV and 1.316 mV, respectively. This indicated that the EAG response changed with the different flux of volatiles.


    Detection and phylogenetic analysis of Wolbachia in different Bemisia tabaci biotypes
    CHU Dong, CONG Bin, ZHANG You-Jun, XU Bao-Yun, WU Qing-Jun, ZHU Guo-Ren
    2005, 48(4):  518-525. 
    Abstract ( 3083 )   PDF (334KB) ( 1445 )     
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    Wolbachia is a maternally inherited bacterium that may manipulate the reproduction of its arthropod hosts. Recent research showed that Wolbachia may have contributed to the success of invasive populations. We reported the survey for the presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in Bemisia tabaci biotypes (24 different populations) using Long PCR method to amplify the wsp gene. The results showed that there were no Wolbachia in both invasive B. tabaci B biotype and Q biotype, while a strain of Wolbachia was detected in the non B/Q biotype of B. tabaci both from Zhejiang province and Kenya. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain infesting B. tabaci from Zhejiang province belonged to Con/Rug subgroup of Wolbachia B group, and the strain infesting B. tabaci from Kenya belonged to Btab1 subgroup of Wolbachia B group. The presence or abscence of Wolbachia may be related to successful invasion of B. tabaci.

    Contact toxicity of polyacetylenes to Periplaneta americana and their effects on AChE and ATPase
    WAN Shu-Qing, XU Han-Hong, ZHAO Shan-Huan, JIANG Zhi-Sheng, SHANG Zhi-Zhen, LIU Zhun
    2005, 48(4):  526-530. 
    Abstract ( 3364 )   PDF (181KB) ( 1416 )     
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    The contact toxicity of 11 synthetic polyacetylenes was tested to newly hatched Periplaneta americana larvae with the method of drug film. The results showed these compounds, 1-t-butyl-4-hydroxymethyldiacetylene, 1-benzyl-4-methyldiacetylene and di-ethyl-2-propargylthiophosphate caused high mortality of over 70% to the larvae at 20 μg/cm2 The LC50 of 1-benzyl-4-methyl diacetylene and di-ethyl-2-propargyl thiophosphate was 3.91 μg/cm2 and 1.50 μg/cm2, respectively. The effect on AChE of the insect indicated that 1-t-butyl-4-hydroxymethyldiacetylene, 1-phenyl-4-o-nitrophenyl-diacetylene and di-ethyl-2-propargylthiophosphate inhibited its activity, and the inhibition rate was 12.00%, 27.24% and 62.22%, respectively. To ATPase, 1-t-butyl-4-hydroxymethyl diacetylene and di-ethyl-2-propargyl thiophosphate inhibited the activity of Na+K+ATPase, and the inhibition rate was 44.55% and 31.44%, respectively; but 1-phenyl-4-(3,4methylenedioxy)-phenyl-diacetylene and 1-phenyl-4-m-nitrophenyl-diacetylene enhanced the activity of the enzyme, and the activation rate was 24.98% and 20.61%; 1-t-butyl-4-hydroxymethyl-diacetylene,1-phenyl-4-p-methoxyphenyldiacetylene and 1-phenyl-4-o-nitrophenyl-diacetylene inhibited the activity of Ca2+Mg2+ATPase, and the inhibition rate was 49.02%, 38.53% and 35.32%, respectively; but other compounds enhanced activity of the enzyme, among them the highest activity was observed with 1-phenyl-4-(3,4-methylenedioxy)-phenyl-diacetylene, and the activation rate was 81.12%.

    Seasonal dynamics of resistance to six insecticides in the fieldpopulations of parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh)(Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae)
    WU Gang, Tadashi MIYATA
    2005, 48(4):  531-536. 
    Abstract ( 2913 )   PDF (201KB) ( 1167 )     
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    The resistance to six insecticides in the field populations of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae),a parasitoid of vegetable aphid collected in Jianxin, Fuzhou City, and Shangjie, Minhou County, Fujian, China, was studied  using dry residual film method. The susceptibility to insecticides in a field population of D. rapae increased significantly after being reared in the field insectarium under insecticide free conditions. Compared to susceptible F21 reared in the insectarium, the resistance ratios were 11.8-31.2 for methamidophos, 9.3-14.7 for fipronil, 9.3-35.7 for avermectin, 7.0-16.6 for fenvalerate and 13.3-30.1 for imidacloprid, respectively in Shangjie populations during June 8, 2002 to November 18, 2004; and 7.5-34.9 for methamidophos, 4.0-14.3 for fipronil, 9.2-38.6 for avermectin, 7.8-18.9 for fenvalerate and 12.1-24.2 for imidacloprid, respectively in Shangjie populations during June 5, 2003 to December 17, 2004. RR in field populations of D. rapae was the highest in May, early June and November, lower in December, and the lowest in the end of June. In particular, RR decreased markedly in about 20 days from the beginning to the end in June. The results indicated that the resistance levels to methamidosphos, fipronil, avermectin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin and imidacloprid in D. rapae were not stable after relaxation from the selection pressure of insecticide, and that there existed significantly seasonal variations of resistance levels to the six insecticides in D. rapae.


    Difference of arthropod communities in Bt rice paddies under different cropping patterns
    CAI Wan-Lun, SHI Shang-Bai, YANG Chang-Ju, PENG Yu-Fa
    2005, 48(4):  537-543. 
    Abstract ( 2850 )   PDF (279KB) ( 1431 )     
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    In order to evaluate the effect of the cropping pattern applied refuge on arthropod community in Bt rice paddy, the survey was conducted with the block cropping pattern, in which the block of refuge was along side the block of Bt rice, and the mixed cropping pattern, in which rows of refuge was planting within rows of transgenic Bt rice. The results showed that there was no significantly difference in diversity, evenness and dominant concentration of arthropod communities between two cropping patterns during the whole period of rice growth, but the species richness and individual density of arthropods in the mixed cropping pattern were significantly lower than those in the block cropping pattern. Furthermore,  the dynamics of diversity, evenness and dominant concentration of arthropod community in Bt rice paddy under the mixed cropping pattern were remarkably different with those under the block cropping pattern, but similar to those in nonBt rice refuge during the middle period of rice growth. This suggests that the mixed cropping pattern is more effective than the block cropping pattern.


    Effect of transgenic pestresistant rice on pest insect communities in paddy fields
    LIU Yu-Fang, SU Jun, YOU Min-Sheng, WANG Qiong, HU Si-Qin, LIU Wen-Hai, ZHAO Shi-Xi,WANG Feng
    2005, 48(4):  544-553. 
    Abstract ( 3180 )   PDF (317KB) ( 1539 )     
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    Effect of MSA and MSB, transgenic rice with fused genes of Cry1Ac and SCK, and 21S/MSB and II-32A/MSB, progenies from crosses between Cry1Ac/SCK-transgenic rice and conventional rice varieties on the pest insect community in paddy field was tested by the suction machine sampling method combined with the field denudation method. The results indicated that both MSA and MSB were highly resistant against the rice leaf roller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. The rice lines 21S/MSB and Ⅱ-32A/MSB also obtained the trait of high resistance to C. medinalis. Although MSA, MSB, 21S/MSB and II-32A/MSB showed some effect on the temporal dynamics of species richness, number of individuals, diversity, evenness and dominant concentration indices, the results from analysis of the whole period of rice growing revealed that the four rice varieties had no remarkable effect on the species richness, total number of individuals, diversity, evenness and dominant concentration indices of communities of pest insects in paddy fields compared with their respective control. Comparison of the results of different rice revealed high compositional similarities in the total and key pest insect species. The removal or depressing of population of target pest insect C. medinalis had negligible effect on the dominant species, composition, and structure of pest insect communities in paddy fields planted with Cry1Ac/SCK transgenic rice. 


    Effect of transgenic sck+cry1Ac rice on the survival and growth of Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and its parasitoid Apanteles chilonis (Munakata) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
    JIANG Yong-Hou, FU Qiang, CHENG Jia-An, ZHU Zeng-Rong, JIANG Ming-Xing, ZHANG Zhi-Tao
    2005, 48(4):  554-560. 
    Abstract ( 3093 )   PDF (255KB) ( 1538 )     
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    Effect of transgenic sck+cry1Ac rice (MSB) on mortality and fresh weight of the stripped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis (Walker), and biological characteristics of Apanteles chilonis (Munakata) via its host SSB was studied in the laboratory. Mortalities of SSB feeding on MSB increased steadily, and were significantly higher than those feeding on MH86 (CK) on day 6 and afterwards. The fresh weights of SSB continuously feeding on MSB were significantly less than those of feeding on CK on day 2 and afterwards. Mortalities of SSB feeding on CK for 3, 6, 9, 12 days after feeding on MSB for 36 h were not significantly different from those of continuously feeding on CK; but the fresh weights of the SSB were very significantly less than those feeding on CK on day 3 Parasitism rate of 4th instar larva feeding on MSB by A. chilonis was significantly lower than that of the control. Pupal duration and length of cocoon of the parasitoid from the 5th instar larva feeding on MSB were significantly longer and shorter than those of the control, respectively. However, no differences were detected in percentage of pupa formation, duration of egg and larva, cocoon number of simple cocoon mass, wasp emergence rate, female rate, longevity and forewing length of wasp between the parasitoids from SSB feeding on MSB and MH86. The results indicated that the transgenic sck+cry1Ac rice did affect not only the mortality and body weight of the stripped stem borer, but also some biological characteristics of its parasitoid A. chilonis.

    Structure characteristics of the arthropod communityin the jujube orchards with different habitats
    SHI Guang-Lu, ZHAO Li-Lin, MIAO Zhen-Wang, LIU Su-Qi, CAO Hui, Shiyou LI, Bruce PIKE
    2005, 48(4):  561-567. 
    Abstract ( 2926 )   PDF (230KB) ( 1539 )     
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    The structures and characteristics of the arthropod communities of jujube orchards with different habitats were analyzed based on the survey in the suburb of Taigu County, Shanxi Province, Northern China. The results indicated that the largest number of arthropod species and the least number of individuals were in the treatment with weeds (P<0.05), and the least number of arthropod species and the largest number of individuals were in the treatment without weeds (P<0.05). In the comparison of species richness of different groups, the phytophagous group was the largest, but the predatory and parasitoid groups were the smallest in the treatment without weeds; the phytophagous group was the least, but predatory and parasitoid groups were the largest in the treatment with weeds. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) of species and individuals within the parasitoid group between the treatment with soybean and the treatment without weeds. The analysis based on the ShannonWiener diversity index and relative stability values suggested that the richer the plant diversity, the better regulation ability among arthropod communities. More crops and properly remaining weeds could reduce the possibility of natural enemies migrating out. In addition, intercropping more crops in jujube orchards was more beneficial not only in getting a larger net return but also in increasing diversity and evenness of beneficial insects and decreasing the degree of pest dominance.


    Stochastic simulation of cotton bollworm population dynamics based on lifetable parameters
    GAO Zeng-Xiang, XU Ru-Mei, WU Zi-Jiang, YANG Yan-Tao, XUE Zhi-Hua, DING Yan-Qin, LI Dian-Mo
    2005, 48(4):  568-575. 
    Abstract ( 2833 )   PDF (296KB) ( 1368 )     
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    Based on the demographic parameters of life table of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), its population dynamics was simulated using Markov chain Monte Carlo method. The simulation results showed that cotton bollworm population dynamics was very complicated. Although original survived larvae were same, after several generations or life history stages, the population density of cotton bollworm varied enormously, ranging from slight occurrence to outbreak. Only if the environment was very favorable for cotton bollworm, did the inputted parameter, the survived larvae of first generation, affect the pest's probable maximum occurrence degree. When the occurrence degree was slight or moderate, the original survived larvae and the final population density of cotton bollworm had no significant relationship. However, if environmental conditions were favorable to the bollworm for one generation or even a life history stage, cotton bollworm would break out. The simulated results suggest that uncertainty exists in some extent to make long term forecast of the bollworm dynamics.

    Identification of early larvae of common carrionbreeding flies by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis finger map
    LI Kai, YE Gong-Yin, HU Cui
    2005, 48(4):  576-581. 
    Abstract ( 2918 )   PDF (366KB) ( 1258 )     
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    With the application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) technology in biology science, the importance of constructing proteome map has been recognized. Protein maps of neonate larvae of four common carrionbreeding fly species were obtained using 2-DE in the range of pH 4-7. After silver stained detection of protein spots, we found that there were marked differences among these maps. Isoelectric points and molecular weight analysis indicated that 2-DE map could be used to identify neonate larvae of common carrion breeding flies which are confused in morphology.




    Analysis of cuticular hydrocarbons of termites and its application in taxonomy
    ZHANG Hong-Bing, LI Xiao-Ying, DAI Hua-Guo, ZHOU Qiu-Jun
    2005, 48(4):  582-587. 
    Abstract ( 3115 )   PDF (204KB) ( 1681 )     
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    The analysis of the termite cuticular hydrocarbon of twelve samples of termites
    showed that there was discrepancy in the cuticular hydrocarbons components and quantity for different species. The dendrogram based on the value of the smallest distance coefficient gained by UPGMA cluster analysis indicated that:  the relative relationship of Reticulitermes flaviceps, R. dichrous and R. sp.1, belonging to Frontotermes, is rather close; the relative relationship of R.labralis, R.microcephalus, R. sp.2 and R. sp.3, belonging to Planifrontotermes, is also rather close; the relative relationship of Heterotermes hainanensis, H. citrinus, H. leptomandibularis, H. aculabialis and H. sp.4, belonging to Heterotermes, is rather close as well. Among the three groups of termites, the relative relationship between Frontotermes and Planifrontotermes is closer; however, the relative relationship between these two and Heterotermes is rather distant. According to our experiments, there is Heterotermes in China. The main difference between Heterotermes and Reticulitermes is that Heterotermes lacks such hydrocarbons as heptadecane, eicosane, heneicosane, docosane, tricosane, tetracosane, hexacosane and so on, but has the isoquinoline. Besides, when classified according to the morphology, R. sp.1 was identified as R. dichrous, R. sp.2 as R. microcephalus, R. sp.3 as R. labralis and H. sp.4 as H. aculabialis. The experiment shows that there is difference in the classification based on cuticular hydrocarbons and that based on morphology for R. sp.1, R. sp.2, R. sp.3 and H. sp.4. R.sp.1, R. sp.3 and H. sp.4 should be identified as other species according to the results of analysis of cuticular hydrocarbons and R. sp.2 belongs to subspecies of R. labralis or other species.

    A systematic study of Mazarredia Bolivar from China with descriptions of four new species (Tetrigoidea: Metrodoridae)
    ZHENG Zhe-Min
    2005, 48(4):  588-593. 
    Abstract ( 2740 )   PDF (287KB) ( 1064 )     
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    The Mazarredia Bolivar from China was reviewed, with 12 species recorded, including four new species: Mazarredia longipennis sp. nov., Mazarredia brachynota sp. nov., Mazarredia lochengensis sp. nov. and Mazarredia torulosinota sp. nov. Type specimens are kept in the Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University.


    Host range of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, its damage and the countermeasures
    ZHAO Tong-Hai, GAO Rui-Tong, Houping LIU, Leah S. BAUER, SUN Long-Qiang
    2005, 48(4):  594-599. 
    Abstract ( 3837 )   PDF (186KB) ( 1465 )     
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    The host range of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, a destructive wood borer, is limited to ash trees of the genus Fraxinus in the family Oleaceae. EAB attacked ash species in the Section Fraxinus and Section Meliodes of Subgen. Fraxinus, such as F. americana, F. pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima, F. velutina, F. nigra, and F. mandshurica. Contrary to reports in the early literature, EAB was rarely found infesting native species F. chinensis Roxb. and F. rhynchophylla Hance. EAB was also foundattacking different ash species of Section Meliodes, such as two species native to North America, F. pennsylvanica and F. velutina, more heavily than those of Section Fraxinus, such as the native species F. mandshurica. Native ash trees of China may be more resistant to indigenous pests such as EAB due to the evolution of natural defenses over long time. It is likely that the severity of this pest in some regions of China resulted from the high susceptibility of introduced ash tree species from North America to EAB. EAB has been reported in Tianjin city, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Shandong, Sichuan and Taiwan provinces, and Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia autonomous regions in China. Ash trees are distributed in every province and autonomous region in China with the exception of Qinghai and Hainan provinces and Tibet autonomous region. The north and northwest of China where North American ash species have been widely introduced, and the northeast of China where F. mandshurica has been planted recently are places of the potential outbreaks of this pest. EAB has been listed as a quarantine forest pest in some provinces of China, so the strict quarantine will be the first step to stop its diffusion. The outbreaks of EAB occurred on introduced North American ash trees showed that the evaluation of adaptability of these ash species in China needed further work, and the native ash species should be paid more attention in the environmental management. In the management of EAB, the mixed plantation, advanced cultivating measures, cleaning out damage trees and appropriate chemical control techniques are recommended to adopt.

    Gene structure and expression regulation of glutathione S-transferase genes in insects
    CHEN Feng-Ju, GAO Xi-Wu
    2005, 48(4):  600-608. 
    Abstract ( 2758 )   PDF (408KB) ( 2039 )     
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    The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) belong to a superfamily in which almost 100 sequences have been identified from more than 20 species of insects. All the GST genes belong to at least 3 classes, Ⅰ(Delta) class, Ⅱclass and Ⅲ (Epsilon) class, among which Ⅰand Ⅲ are insectspecific class. Genes in GST classⅠare usually encoded by multigene family and the complexity in different species of insects are variable. Fewer genes in GST classⅡare reported; their genomic organization is simple, generally having only one copy. Class Ⅲ are newly identified class and their genomic organization is only clear in Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. Mechanisms of gene cluster, alternative splicing and gene fusion are involved in generating multiple functional GST genes. There are two molecular mechanisms for increased expression of GSTs in resistant insects: elevation in mRNA level and gene amplification while the latter is rarely reported. Elevation of GST activity is involved in upregulation of multiple enzymes belonging to one more GST classes or more rarely upregulation of a single enzyme. The expression is regulated by trans-acting regulators and cis-acting regulating elements. So far only a few crude chromosomal locations which should contain these regulatory genes and some putative regulatory elements have been identified.

    Advances in tick vitellogenesis
    YANG Xiao-Long, GAO Zhi-Hua, LIU Jing-Ze
    2005, 48(4):  609-615. 
    Abstract ( 3010 )   PDF (209KB) ( 1533 )     
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    Ticks are a specific group of arthropods. The knowledge of reproductive physiology in ticks is very limited as compared to insects. Vitellogenesis directly influences tick reproductive ability, and is always a very active research field in tick physiology. At present, the research mainly concentrates on vitellin purification and characterization, vitellogenin synthesis and hormonal regulation, vitellogenin absorption and processing. Vitellogenesis is regulated by hormones. There are obvious differences between hard ticks and soft ticks in hormonal effects and sorts. The knowledge of tick vitellogenesis is preliminary, and further research should be made in many aspects.

    Advances in phagostimulating pheromone in termites
    HUANG Qiu-Ying, XUE Dong, LEI Chao-Liang
    2005, 48(4):  616-621. 
    Abstract ( 3831 )   PDF (177KB) ( 1541 )     
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    The organization of termite societies depends predominantly on pheromones produced by exocrine glands, which induce and modulate individual behavioral responses. The phagostimulating pheromone produced by the labial glands of termites induces feeding termites to gather and feed at the same spot of a food source, so a termite colony can exploit the food source faster and more efficiently during the communal food exploitation of the termite colony. Hydroquinone has been identified as a phagostimulating pheromone, and it has been considered that all the Isoptera produce and employ hydroquinone as phagostimulating pheromone, irrespective of taxonomic position and biological traits. This paper summarizes the secretor, species specificity, biological significance, biosynthetic pathway and application in termite control of the phagostimulating pheromone in termites.

    Localization of the Tpi gene on Z chromosome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori by real-time quantitative PCR
    NIU Bao-Long, LU Shun-Lin, WENG Hong-Biao, SHEN Wei-Feng, MENG Zhi-Qi
    2005, 48(4):  622-626. 
    Abstract ( 3124 )   PDF (186KB) ( 1060 )     
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    The ratio of copy number between Bm Tpi and DH-PBAN, which is located on the 11th chromosome was detected with the real-time quantitative PCR technique. It was 1.0 in males and 0.5 in females. The ratio of copy number between Bm Tpi and Bm Kettin, which is located on Z chromosome, was same in males and females. This indicated that the copy number of Bm Tpi was equal to that of Bm Kettin in the silkworm genome, i.e. one copy in females and two in males. The results suggest that Bm Tpi is located on Z chromosome in the genome of silkworm. 

    The optimization of conditions for assaying activity of acetylcholinesterase from the Italian honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola) by orthogonal matrix method
    ZHANG Ying,HUANG Jian,GAO Xi-Wu
    2005, 48(4):  627-632. 
    Abstract ( 3232 )   PDF (198KB) ( 1666 )     
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    The optimal conditions of assaying the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the Italian honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola) heads were determined by orthogonal matrix method. The concentrations of acetylcholinesterase and substrate,  pH and temperature of the reaction system,  and reaction time were optimized. L25 (56) orthogonal matrix was adopted,  without considering interaction. The specific activity of AChE was determined by colorimetric method of Ellman modified by Gorun (1978),  using acetylthiocholine iodide (ATCI) as substrate and DTNB (5, 5′-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid) as chromogen. The optical density was measured by spectrophotometric detection (at 412 nm) of the increase of yellow color produced from thiocholine when reacted with 5,  5′-dithio-bis-2nitrobenzoate ions. Protein concentrations in homogenate supernatants were determined by the method of Bradford (1976). The results revealed that temperature of the reaction system was the most important factor for measuring the activity of AChE from honeybee heads, and the measuring was also remarkably affected by the other four factors. The effects on the activity of acetylcholinesterase were in the order of temperature>pH>time>concentration of AChE>concentration of substrate. The optimal conditions were: 0.2 heads/mL, 0.8 mmol/L substrate, pH 7.5, 40℃, 5 minutes.


    Insecticide resistance in Nanjing population of the diamondback moth and the corresponding strategy for pesticide application
    WU Min, HAN Zhao-Jun, MENG Jian-Ye, ZHU Bin
    2005, 48(4):  633-636. 
    Abstract ( 3012 )   PDF (116KB) ( 1761 )     
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    The field diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella collected from Nanjing was found to be resistant to deltamethrin (24.69-fold tested by leaf dipping). But it was still sensitive to phoxim, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, spinosad and tebufenozide. PBO showed significant synergism to deltamethrin in the resistant moth. Laboratory breeding revealed that the deltamethrin resistance decreased quickly when the diamondback moth was reared without contact with insecticides, and kept in low resistance level after breeding for ten generations. Based on these results, it was suggested that rotational use of effective insecticides and using pyrethroid together with PBO should be rational for management of insecticide resistance in this pest.

    Analysis of protein patterns from embryo of silkworm Bombyx mori at later stages by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
    ZHONG Bo-Xiong,CHEN Jin-E,YAN Xin-Pei, XU Meng-Kui, LIANG Jian-She
    2005, 48(4):  637-642. 
    Abstract ( 2838 )   PDF (562KB) ( 1326 )     
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    Using two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and image analysis system, the changes of the proteins from later stages (after the shortening stage) of embryo of silkworm Bombyx mori were analyzed to discover the protein changing pattern during embryo development. A total of 209 specific protein spots were found in the 2D-PAGE pattern of embryos at the head thorax differentiation, reverse, tubercle appearance,head pigmentation, body pigmentation and hatch stages. Among them, the specific protein spots expressed in the head pigmentation stage and body pigmentation stage embryo contributed the largest quantity, namely 55 and 77 respectively. Similar to the changing pattern of the specific protein spots of embryo at the earlier stages, most of these specific protein spots disappeared in the embryos shortly afterwards. This suggested that those specific proteins might be related to the corresponding body characteristics in embryo development.

    Changes in activities of four energy metabolism related enzymes during flight of Mythimna separata
    LI Ke-Bin, GAO Xi-Wu, LUO LI-Zhi, YIN Jiao, CAO Ya-Zhong
    2005, 48(4):  643-647. 
    Abstract ( 2731 )   PDF (167KB) ( 1347 )     
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     The effect of the flight on the activities of energy metabolism related enzymes in the flight muscles of the Oriental armyworm moth, Mythimna separata females was studied. These enzymes measured were glyceraldehydes phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD). In the first 5 min of the tethered-flight of 3 day-old moth, activities of all the enzymes related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism increased rapidly,enzymes related to lipid metabolism were completely activated, and the activities of HOAD were significantly strengthened. But in flight duration from 5th to 60th min, the activities of all energymetabolism related enzymes decreased,suggesting that the flight was going to be stabilized. High levels of GDH and LDH activities during flight suggested that both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism happened in flight muscle. The ratio of HOAD∶GAPDH suggested that not only lipids but also carbohydrates in the female could be involved as energy substrates in the process of flight activity.