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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
13 October 2005, Volume 48 Issue 5
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Characterization of prophenoloxidase from the hemolymph of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée)
    FENG Cong-Jing, DU Yu-Zhou, LU Zi-Qiang, FU Wen-Jun
    2005, 48(5):  649-654. 
    Abstract ( 2791 )   PDF (515KB) ( 1296 )     
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    The prophenoloxidase (PPO) was purified from the hemolymph of the larvae of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) by sequential use of precipitation in 40% saturation ammonium sulfate, the affinity chromatography of Blue Sepharose CL-6B and Phenyl Sepharose CL-4B. The relative molecular weight of prophenoloxidase was 158 kD, and the molecular weight of two subunits was 80 kD and 78 kD, respectively. The prophenoloxidase was glycoprotein and could be activated by 0.1 mmol/L cetylpyridmium chloride (CPC), 50% methanol, 1 mg/mL laminarin and 1 mg/mL trypsin. The optimum pH was 7.0 and the optimum temperature 25-30℃ for prophenoloxidase activity, which could be significantly stimulated by Mg2+ and Ca2+.

     

     

    Diapause induction and cold storage of diapause cocoons in Microplitis mediator (Haliday)
    HUN Zhi-Ying, WANG De-An, LU Zi-Yun, PAN Wen-Liang
    2005, 48(5):  655-659. 
    Abstract ( 3187 )   PDF (540KB) ( 993 )     
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    Microplitis mediator (Haliday) is an important natural enemy to parasitize young larvae of some moths of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera). The results of field tests showed that in the middle region of Hebei province, when the daily average temperature was 21.5℃ and the daily average day length was 12 hours and 33 minutes, a few of M. mediator entered diapause.  When the daily average temperature was below 17.9℃ and day length was shorter than 11 hours and 45 minutes, all of M. mediator entered diapause. The results of simulation test in the laboratory showed that when the temperature was between 17-26℃ and day length was 10-14 hours, the diapause rate significantly increased with the decrease of temperature and day length. High temperature counteracted the effect of short day length. When the temperature is 26℃, photoperiod had no effect on diapause. Thus, lower temperature and shorter day length were the major factors to induce diapause of the parasitoid. The parasitoid accepted the signal for diapause at the young larvae stage and entered diapause at the prepupa stage (cocoon). All pre-pupae entered diapause only if the young larvae had been reared in the temperature and the photoperiod for diapause induction till mature larvae. The emergence rate and the parasitic ability showed no significant difference between adults emerged from the diapause cocoons stored in the temperature of 4±2℃ for 240 days and those from the non-diapause cocoons without cold storage. After 300 days cold storage, the emergence rate of the diapause cocoons could still reach to 81.4%.



    The parasitoid associated factors of Opius caricivorae Fischer and their physiological effects on host
    WAN Zhi-Wei, CHEN Xue-Xin, YU Hong, HE Jun-Hua
    2005, 48(5):  660-666. 
    Abstract ( 3091 )   PDF (4419KB) ( 1040 )     
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    The parasitoidassociated factors of Opius caricivorae Fischer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and their physiological effects on the larvae of host Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) were preliminarily studied. It wasfound that the main parasitoidassociated factor of this parasitoid was venom.The anatomic examination showed that the venom apparatus consists of a coneshaped tan reservoir, seven transparent gland filaments, and a venom duct. The SDS-PAGE indicated that in the venom there were approximately 12 protein bands, in which most of them were less than 100 kD with 43.5, 25.9 and 20.1 kD bands in the highest concentration, while in the Dufour's there were approximately 15 protein bands, in which the most abundant bands were 121.4, 77.0, 51.5, 42.7 and 36.5 kD. TEM examination revealed for the first time the existence of a kind of viruslike particles in secretory cells of the gland filaments and ovarial ectodermal cells of the parasitoid. These sphericalshaped particles were approximately 50 nm in diameter. When the 3rd instar host larvae were parasitized by female wasps irradiated with Co60 (resulting in pseudoparasitism), almost all of them were still able to pupate normally, but unable to emerge. Some red flecks appeared on the tegument of host larvae about 7 hours after parasitization while the morphology of fat body of host remained unchanged. Almost all eggs of the wasp were not encapsulated. Therefore, we concluded that venom of the wasp might play an important role in the suppression of host's encapsulation, but it needs further studies to confirm whether the newlyfound viruslike particles were also involved in this process or not.


     

    Cloning of a cDNA encoding antifreeze protein in Microdera punctipenis dzunarica (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and its activity assay
    ZHAO Gan, MA Ji, XUE Na, YANG Chang-Geng, ZHUAN Fang-Fang, ZHANG Fu-Chun
    2005, 48(5):  667-673. 
    Abstract ( 3050 )   PDF (913KB) ( 1183 )     
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    For cloning antifreeze protein (AFP) gene from a desert darkling beetle Microdera punctipenis dzunarica in Xinjiang, the primers were designed according to the core sequence of AFP gene deposited in GenBank, and the cDNA fragment about 294 bp named as MpAFP5 was amplified with the RT-PCR and 3'RACE technique. Sequence analysis revealed that the cloned cDNA fragment named as MpAFP5 coded the mature peptide of AFP. The full sequence of MpAFP5 (AY821792) was about 363 bp. Compared with the Dendroides canadensis AFP-8 and Tenebrio molitor thermal hysteresis protein (THP) isoform 4-9 genes, it had 68.4% and 71.8% identity in gene level, and 70% and 81% identity in protein level respectively. The MpAFP5 gene was then cloned into prokaryotic plasmid pGEX4T-1 and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the fusion antifreeze protein was expressed in E. coli with a molecular weight of about 37 kD. Westernblot analysis showed that MpAFP5 was expressed correctly. Tests on low temperature protection to bacteria showed that the insect antifreeze protein could protect bacteria from the low temperature damages, and the protective effect was correlated with the antifreeze protein concentration.
    Effects of feeding on different food plants on nutritional utilization and midgut enzyme activities in Actinote anteas (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
    LI Zhi-Gang, HAN Shi-Chou, GUO Ming-Fang, LI Li-Ying, PENG Tong-Xu, LIU Wen-Hui, LUO Li-Fen
    2005, 48(5):  674-678. 
    Abstract ( 3274 )   PDF (831KB) ( 1306 )     
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    The effects of feeding on different food plants,Mikania micrantha HBK, Chromolaena odorata L., Gynura crepidioides Benth, Brassica parachinensis Bailey and Brassica chinensis L., on the survival rate and nutritional utilization of the larvae of Actinote anteas were investigated. The impact of feeding on different food plants on the activity of amylase,  trehalase, sucrase and esterase in the midgut of the 4th instar larvae were assayed in vitro. The results showed that the survival rate of 4th, 5th, 6th instar larvae fed on the M. micrantha are higher than that of those fed on the other three food plants. Although the relative consumption rate of 4th instar larvae fed on M. micrantha was low, the relative growth rate and the efficiency conversion of ingested food of these larvae were markedly higher than that of those on the other three plants (P<0.05). Furthermore, significant high enzyme activity of esterase was found in 4th instar larvae of A. anteas that fed on M. micrantha. The enzyme activities of amylase, sucrase and trehalase of A. anteas fed on B. chinensis were relatively low. The results indicated that the larvae of A. anteas had lower capability to utilize G. crepidioides, B. parachinensis and B. chinensis, and this suggested that these three species of plants would not become the host plants of A. anteas.


    Effect of temperature and humidity on the virulence of beetlederived Beauveria bassiana(Balsamo)Vuillemin (Deuteromycetes: Moniliales) against the daikon leaf beetle, Phaedon brassicae Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
    HE Yu-Rong, LU Li-Hua, KUANG Zhuo-Bin, FENG Xia, CHEN Huan-Yu, WU Ya-Jing
    2005, 48(5):  679-686. 
    Abstract ( 3466 )   PDF (988KB) ( 1712 )     
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    In this study, the effect of temperature and humidity on the virulence of a Beauveria bassiana isolate, SCAU-BB01D, to Phaedon brassicae, a serious insect pest of cruciferous vegetables in South China, was studied in the laboratory. The mortality of P. brassicae was significant lower at temperature of 17℃ and 29℃ than at other temperatures. At temperature of 23℃, the mortality of adult on the 14th day after treatment reached its highest, 95.60%. For 2nd instar larvae the highest mortality (96.00%) was obtained at both 23℃ and 26℃ on the 10th day after treatment. The pathogenicity of B. bassiana to P. brassicae was enhanced as relative humidity increased. When relative humidity (RH) was increased from 50% to 100%, adult mortality 14 days after treatment was enhanced from 55.70% to 88.80% and 2nd instar larvae mortality 10 days after treatment was enhanced from 62.00% to 96.00%. At 17, 20, 23, 26, and 29℃, the LT50 values were 13.63, 10.27, 8.05, 8.87 and 12.41 days for adults, and  6.06, 5.72, 4.90, 4.86 and 6.73 days for 2nd instar larvae, respectively. LT50 values at RH of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100% were 12.97, 10.97, 10.13, 9.79, 9.14, 8.29 for adults and 7.68, 6.92, 5.76, 5.57, 5.48, and 4.82 days for 2nd instar larvae, respectively. Therefore, temperatures between 23-26℃ and RH higher than 80% were the most suitable conditions for promoting infection of B. bassiana to P. brassicae.

    Effects of rotenone on oviposition and feeding of Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
    LI Shui-Qing, SUN Jiang-Hua, ZHANG Zhong-Ning
    2005, 48(5):  687-691. 
    Abstract ( 2647 )   PDF (928KB) ( 1401 )     
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    Effects of rotenone on oviposition and feeding of Monochamus alternatus Hope were investigated in the laboratory. The results showed that rotenone strongly deterred the females from ovipositing and significantly inhibited the adults from feeding on the 1-2 year-old twigs. The higher the concentration of rotenone, the stronger the deterrent rate of oviposition and the antifeedant rate. At the concentration of 1 000 mg/L, the deterrent rate of oviposition was 75.63%,and the selective and non-selective antifeedant rate were 72.91 % and 69.50% respectively. The contact toxicity of rotenone against 5 instar larvae was not strong. So it is concluded that rotenone can decrease the spreading of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus by inhibiting feeding behavior of M. alternatus and detract the density of population by deterring the females from ovipositing.

    Bioactivities of extracts from 21 species of plants against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    YAO Ying-Juan, XUE Dong, YANG Chang-Ju
    2005, 48(5):  692-698. 
    Abstract ( 3279 )   PDF (1042KB) ( 1118 )     
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    The repellent action and contact action of the extracts of 21 species of plants to adult maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky were studied. The results showed that petroleum ether extract of Alpinia officinarum, acetone extract of Curcuma longa and petroleum ether extract of Litsea cubeba had obvious repellent action to adult S. zeamais. Sixty hours after treatment, the average repellency class of the three extracts all reached class Ⅴ, while their average repellency was 80.02%, 80.60% and 81.70% respectively. The extracts of Acorus gramineus and Croton tiglium all had obvious contact action to adult S. zeamais, and the corrected mortalities of the weevil were all above 90% four days after treatment in the concentration of 7.86 mg/cm2.

    Influences of weed strips at cotton field edges on population dynamics of cotton spider mites
    MA Xiao-Mu, YANG Zhang-Hua, LIU Xiao-Xia, ZHANG Qing-Wen, CAI Qing-Nian, LI Ji-Jun, JIANG Zhen-Qi
    2005, 48(5):  699-705. 
    Abstract ( 3095 )   PDF (1169KB) ( 1090 )     
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    Systematic investigations were conducted to determine the effect of weed stripsat cotton field edges on population dynamics of cotton spider mites (mainly Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval and T. truncatus Ehara) and to evaluate influence of eradicating weeds at cotton field edges on occurrence of cotton spider mites in South Hebei, China in 2003-2004. Three treatments were designed, i.e., Bt cotton field with weed strip retained at cotton field edge (FRW), Bt cotton field with weeds on cotton field edge eradicated (FEW), and Bt cotton field with acaricide applied to control cotton spider mites but with weed strip retained at cotton field edge (FAC). The results showed that there were obvious difference in spider mite densities and the ratio of plants with acarids among the three treatments in both years. Both cotton spider mite densities and the ratio of plants with acarids in FRW were obviously higher than those in FEW and FAC. In 2003, the cumulative value of spider mites in FRW was 5.8 and 5.5 times that recorded in FAC and FEW respectively, and the peak of the ratio of plants with acarids in FRW was 34.7%, 6.4% and 12% higher than that in FAC and FEW. In 2004, the cumulative value of spider mites in FRW was 4.9 and 9.7 times that recorded in FAC and FEW respectively, and the ratio of plants with acarids in FRW was 75% and 87% higher than that in FAC and FEW in peak day. The ratio of plants with acarids and densities of cotton spider mites between FAC and FEW reached peaks at different dates in both years. The results showed that: (1) Eradicating the weeds at cotton field edges proved to be more effective in weakening the damage caused by cotton spider mites than keeping the weeds retained; (2) The distance from weed strip to sampled cotton plants was negatively correlated with the damage index of cotton spider mites.

    Population dynamics of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Yuanjiang dryhot valley, Yunnan with an analysis of the related factors
    LIU Jian-Hong, YE Hui
    2005, 48(5):  706-711. 
    Abstract ( 3305 )   PDF (1158KB) ( 1213 )     
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    The population dynamics of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was monitored through methyl eugenol baited traps all year around in 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2004 in Yuanjiang dry hot valley area, Yunnan, and meanwhile, the factors including temperatures, rainfall and hostplant species were analyzed systematically in relation to the population fluctuation of the fly. The results indicated that the fruit fly occurred all year round in Yuanjiang. Its population size remained low from December to February of next year and increased steadily from March through August till it reached the peak. Afterwards, the fruit fly population declined until November. Temperatures, rainfall and host fruits were supposed to be the major factors influencing the population fluctuation. The monthly mean temperatures fell into the ranges of temperatures suitable for development and reproduction of the fly in the study area. But, the monthly mean minimum temperatures from December to February of next year appeared to be lower, and were suggested to be responsible for the low populations in this period. In contrast, the monthly mean maximum temperatures in May were too high and may have negative effect on the fly populations. Rainfall was another essential factor influencing the population fluctuations. Rainfall in summer months from June through August ranged between 100-150 mm, being helpful for the fly population increasing. Mango and orange were the most preferred hostplants for the fly. The planted areas, fruiting period and productions of the two fruit plants exerted essential effects on the fly population fluctuations in Yuanjiang valley area. Briefly, the monthly mean temperature, monthly rainfall and the host plant species, through the way of their functions, their influence strength, as well as the period that they occurred, synthetically impacted the population dynamics of the fruit fly in the study area.

    The relationship between fecundity and female age of Trichogramma ostriniae Pang et Chen
    CHEN Ke-Wei, LIU Hui-Zhen, HE Yu-Rong
    2005, 48(5):  712-717. 
    Abstract ( 3448 )   PDF (1183KB) ( 951 )     
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    Relationships between female body size, egg load and fecundity of Trichogramma ostriniae Pang et Chen were analyzed through dissecting ovaries at different ages (0-144 h) of female wasps. The results showed that only a fraction of mature eggs were observed in ovaries at the early stage after emergence, however, egg load increased as the female age increased and almost corresponded to ovary storage capacity by 72 h of adult life. The dependence of egg load on age could be well described by the formula, y=a{1-exp[-b(x+c)]}. Female wasps with hind tibia length (HTL) shorter than 0.150 mm, between 0.150-0.159 mm and longer than 0.160 mm produced 40.4, 50.5 and 58.2 eggs in 24 h after emergence, respectively, accounting for 72.8%, 79.3% and 86.9% to their respective ovary storage capacity, corresponding to 49.4%, 47.9% and 51.9% of their respective total lifetime egg complement in the presence of unlimited hosts. On the first day of oviposition, the mean number of eggs laid was fairly close to the egg load. There was a significant positive linear relationship between egg load and female body size of T. ostriniae, so was between the female body size and lifetime fecundity.

    Wheat resistance induced by exogenous chemicals to the wheat aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) and the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker)
    YIN Jiao, CHEN Ju-Lian, CAO Ya-Zhong, LI Ke-Bin, HU Yi, SUN Jing-Rui
    2005, 48(5):  718-724. 
    Abstract ( 3349 )   PDF (1257KB) ( 1031 )     
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    Application of exogenous chemicals and feeding of insect pests can induce wheat to produce various defense responses, such as changing in the composition of volatiles and contents of other secondary metabolites, which in turn will affect the behavior of phytophagous insects and their natural enemies. The concentration of DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4(2H)-benzoxazin-3-one) increased in wheat seedlings after jasmonic acid (JA) or chitin solution was sprayed, but no change of DIMBOA concentration was found in the wheat treated with methyl jasmonate. Application of JA and feeding on the wheat by the wheat aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) and the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) could induce the change of volatile profiles in wheat seedlings. The volatiles emitted from JA-applied plants could attract the parasitoid, Microplitis tuberculifer Wesmael, one of the natural enemies of the oriental armyworm. Furthermore, when they were feeding on the wheat sprayed with JA, the development and weight of the wheat aphids and oriental armyworms were restrained significantly, and the fecundity of the wheat aphids decreased significantly. The results indicated that application of JA in wheat seedlings can induce wheat to produce both direct defenses and indirect defenses by emitting specific blends of volatiles that attract natural enemies.

    Behavior responses of Tetrastichus sp., an ectoparasitiod wasp, to its host, Paratrioza sinica Yang & Li and host plant, Lycium barbarum L.
    DUAN Li-Qing, LIU Kuan-Yu, Imre S. OTVOS, FENG Shu-Jun, LI Hai-PING, SHAN Yan-Min
    2005, 48(5):  725-730. 
    Abstract ( 3323 )   PDF (1240KB) ( 1211 )     
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    Tetrastichus sp. is an ectoparasitoid wasp of wolf berry psyllid, Paratrioza sinica Yang & Li. It plays an important role in controlling the population dynamics of wolfberry psyllid which is one of the most serious pests of wolfberry, Lycium barbarum L. In order to understand how the wasps find their victims, their responses to extracts from host and host plant were tested using four arm olfactometer and Petri dishes. The results showed that female wasps responded significantly and positively to nymph secretion and the complex of fresh leaves and nymph but not to intact host plant leaves, damaged host plant leaves and complex of leaves and eggs. Seventy three percent of the female wasps were attracted to the arm with nymph secretion (P=0.0000). Female wasps preferred nymph secretion and extracts of nymph (both water and n-butane extracts) significantly and they tapped using antennae and some probed with ovipositor the samples in Petri dishes. The complex of living nymph and wolf berry leaves attracted the wasps significantly (P=0.0004). The host searching time of a female wasp with experience of contacting with its host was significantly less than that of a female without the experience. The former was only about one fourth of the latter. This suggests that the wasp has learning ability.

     

     

    The learning behavior of Scleroderma sichuanensis Xiao (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) fed on the fictitious hosts Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae)
    YANG Wei, XIE Zheng-Hua, ZHOU Zu-Ji, HUANG Qiong, YANG Chun-Ping
    2005, 48(5):  731-735. 
    Abstract ( 3389 )   PDF (1254KB) ( 1216 )     
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    The learning behavior of Scleroderma sichuanensis Xiao fed on the fictitious hosts Tenebrio molitor L. in the process of host foraging was studied using Y-tube olfactometer. The results showed that the female parasitoids in different microhabitats from pine needles, pine barks, turpentine, and fir barks respectively,responded positively to the corresponding volatiles when they were offered with a two-ways choice between blank and the volatiles previously experienced at emergence and the early stage of adult, but the females showed no learning behavior to fir leaves though they had experienced the fir leaves microhabitats. Provided with additional fresh hosts at emergence and the early stage of adult, the females showed no increased preference to volatiles in the Y-tube olfactometer. Associative learning occurred when the parasitoids fed on the host or honey and smelled the odors from branches of pine or fir at the same time. There was no significant difference on the host foraging between the females with the experience of pine or fir volatiles for 4 days and for 8 days.


     

    Effects of entomopathogenic nematodes on the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel)
    LIN Jin-Tian, ZENG Ling, LIANG Guang-Wen, LU Yong-Yue, BIN Shu-Ying
    2005, 48(5):  736-741. 
    Abstract ( 4204 )   PDF (1267KB) ( 1145 )     
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    Effects of four entomopathogenic nematode strains, i.e., Steinernema carpocapsae All, Steinernema carpocapsae A24, Steinernema feltiae SN, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06, on the oriental fruit fly (OFF), Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel) were investigated both in the laboratory and field. The results showed that among the four tested strains, the strain S. carpocapsae All displayed the strongest pathogenicity. The LD50 and LD95 of S. carpocapsae All in 3 days after treatment against the 3rd instar larvae were 35.0 and 257.1 infective juveniles/cm2 soil, respectively. The index of population trend (I) and the interference index of population control (IIPC) based on the life table with affecting factors in different stages in the field populations of B. (B.) dorsalis were used to evaluate the control efficacy of S. carpocapsae All against OFF. The field results showed that when S. carpocapsae All nemotodes in 300 infective juveniles/cm2 soil were used to treat the soil, the control efficacy in 9 days after treatment against larvae and pupae reached 86.3%; the I value of OFF was 15.5, significantly lower than 105.9 found in the orchard without nematode treatment; and the IIPC value of OFF in the treated orchard was 0.146, which meant that the population density of OFF in next generation in the treated orchard was reduced to 14.6% of the population density of OFF in the control orchard.

    A comparative study on the morphological and biological characteristics of the B biotype and a non-B biotype (China-ZHJ-1) of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) from Zhejiang, China
    ZANG Lian-Sheng, LIU Shu-Sheng, LIU Yin-Quan, CHEN Wei-Qiang
    2005, 48(5):  742-748. 
    Abstract ( 3308 )   PDF (2066KB) ( 1000 )     
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    Experimental studies were conducted to determine the reproductive compatibilitybetween the newly invaded B biotype and a non-B biotype (China-ZHJ-1 population) of Bemisia tabaci from Zhejiang, China, and to compare their morphological and biological characteristics, including development duration, the ability to cause squash silverleaf and host plant adaptability. Males and females of the two biotypes placed together in various inter biotype crosses exhibited courtship behavior, but no copulation occurred, and all the offspring were males produced parthenogenetically, whereas the average numbers of copulation event in the first 72 h after emergence for males and females within the B biotype and the non-B biotype were 4.4 and 1.0, and the female/male ratios of the offspring produced by the B biotype and the non-B biotype were 2.8∶1 and 1.0∶1, respectively. The two biotypes showed obvious difference in pupal morphology. The width of anterior and posterior wax fringes of the non-B biotype ZHJ-1 population were 2.5~2.7 times and 1.8~2.1 times wider than that of the B biotype. There was no significant difference in development duration between the two biotypes on cotton except that the B biotype had slightly longer development duration for the 1st instar than that of the non-B biotype. From 2nd instar onwards, the body of the non-B biotype was consistently longer than that of the B biotype. Within the same biotype, the body of 4th instar female was significantly longer than that of males of the same age. On several host plants tested, the survival of the B biotype was significantly or substantially higher than that of the non-B biotype. This comparative study on the biology of the B biotype and the non-B biotype ZHJ-1 population provided some basic information for further investigating the two biotypes of B. tabaci in China, especially the invasion biology of the B biotype.

    Comparison of photoperiodic response between rice- and water-oat-populations of Chilo suppressalis (Walker)
    XIAO Hai-Jun, XUE Fang-Sen, LIU Yang-Qing, ZHU Xing-Fen
    2005, 48(5):  749-753. 
    Abstract ( 2716 )   PDF (1245KB) ( 1009 )     
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    Photoperiodic responses of diapause induction in the striped stem borers, Chilo suppressalis, collected from both rice field (rice-population) and water-oat field (water-oat-population) were investigated, with the two populations fed on rice and water-oat, respectively. The photoperiodic response curves showed that most of larvae entered diapause regardless of photoperiod length when the rice-population was fed on water-oat or the water-oat-population was fed on rice. This indicated that the two populations have evolved to adapt to their corresponding hosts. Only 5%-6% water-oat-population pupated when larvae fed on rice and larval duration was 15-18 days longer than that fed on water-oat; whereas 30%-40% rice-population fed on water-oat pupated and the larval duration was only 3-8 days shorter than that fed on rice. When the water-oat-population was fed on rice and water-oat, respectively, the weight of larvae (32 days old) fed on rice was equal to 53-1% of the larvae fed on water-oat; whereas when the rice-population was fed on rice and water-oat, respectively, the weight of larvae fed on rice was equal to 79.5% of the larvae fed on water-oat. These results indicated that water-oat-population had little adaptability to rice, whereas the rice-population had some adaptability to water-oat. This suggests that the intra species differentiation has appeared between the two populations and planting of water-oat should be no significant influence on the incidence of striped stem borers in rice field.

     

    Observations on morphology and the survival temperature range of Demodex folliculorum
    ZHAO Ya-E, GUO Na, ZHENG Xin, YANG Shi-Feng, ZHANG Ming-Xin, ZHANG Ling-Min, WU Kai-Jie
    2005, 48(5):  754-758. 
    Abstract ( 4395 )   PDF (3050KB) ( 1158 )     
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    The mites of Demodex folliculorum were collected by the squeezing method and cellophane tape method. Screened using a digital microscopy with the Motic DM B5 software, the mites were then randomly divided into different groups and put under various temperatures to determine the survival time and moving activity. Dynamic pictures of the D. folliculorum development process were given. It was found that D.folliculorum at pre-nymph stages has four pairs of legs and the nymph has moving ability. D. folliculorum could survive better in low temperature than in high temperature. The survival temperature range of D.folliculorum was 8-30℃; the suitable development temperature range was 20-30℃, of which the most suitable temperature range was 25-26℃. Extreme temperatures below 0℃ or above 37℃ were harmful to the survival of mites. The lethal temperature for D.folliculorum was 54℃, and the effective temperature in killing D.folliculorum was 58℃. The results may be used to guide the in vitro cultivation, prevention and control of  D.folliculorum.

     

    Monophyly and the taxonomic status of subfamilies of the Catantopidae based on 16S rDNA sequences
    LIU Dian-Feng, JIANG Guo-Fang, SHI Hao, SUN Zheng-Li, HUO Guang-Ming
    2005, 48(5):  759-769. 
    Abstract ( 3081 )   PDF (1606KB) ( 1179 )     
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    Fragments of mtDNA 16S rRNA gene were sequenced for 20 individuals from 10 subfamilies of the Catantopidae and 3 individuals of other families of Acridoidea. The homologous sequences of 15 species of grasshoppers were downloaded from the GenBank data library. It was found that the length of the alignment fragments was 397 bp, including 196 variable sites and 157 parsimonious informative sites. In the fragments, the percentages of A+T and C+G were 71.7% and 28.3%, respectively. The numbers of transitions and transversions among pairwise comparisons of the fragments were respectively plotted against percentage sequence difference. The number of transversions was higher than that of transitions, and saturation of transitions was discovered with the increase of sequence difference in the plot. Phylogenies were reconstructed using Tetrix japonica and Teredorus carmichaeli as outgroup with ME, equally weighted MP, weighted MP and Bayesian inference. The monophyly of Catantopidae is not supported by phylogenetic trees. Inside of Cantantopidae, neither Coptacrinae nor Oxyinae is supported as a monophyletic group. The genera Caryanda, Oxya and Pseudonym are closely related. Combining Podisminae and Melanoplinae into one subfamily Podisminae is supported by phylogenetic trees. The current Oxyinae is not a monophyletic group, and should be a polyphyletic group. The result of inferred phylogeny is very different from the classification scheme of Catantopidae based on morphology.


     

    Insecticidal mechanisms of the major active components from the Chinese bittersweet, Celastrus angulatus and their application
    WU Wen-Jun, HU Zhao-Nong, LIU Hui-Xia, Qi Zhi-Jun
    2005, 48(5):  770-777. 
    Abstract ( 3328 )   PDF (1503KB) ( 1071 )     
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    Chinese bittersweet, Celastrus angulatus Max., is a traditional insecticidal plant in China. Since 1980s, the insecticidal plant has been investigated by multi-subjects crossed research in the world. This paper reviews the bioactivities of the compounds from the plant in five aspects, including insect antifeedant action, insecticidal action, insect narcosis, fungicidal action and anticancer action. The advances of the research on the insecticidal mechanisms of major component celangulin Ⅳ and Ⅴ from the plant are summarized. It is elucidated further that celangulin Ⅳ could target the neuromuscular synapse on the insect, but the celangulin Ⅴ is believed to act on the insect digestive system, and it is predicted that there could be receptors on plasmelemma and organelle membrane of the midgut cells of pest larva. The paper also reviews the field application technology and environment toxicology of the celangulin preparations. Finally, the present problems and the future prospect are discussed.

     

    Pheromone binding proteins in insects with emphasis on their molecular transport and physiological functions
    XIU Wei-Ming, DONG Shuang-Lin, WANG Yin-Chang
    2005, 48(5):  778-784. 
    Abstract ( 2897 )   PDF (1484KB) ( 1204 )     
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    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) in insects are one branch of multigene family of odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and play an important role in the recognition of sex pheromone. This paper reviews the molecular characteristics, binding and releasing mechanisms with pheromone, physiological functions, structure and evolutionary genomics of pheromone binding proteins in insects in details, with particular reference to Lepidoptera.


     

    Semiochemicals in phytophagous scarab beetles
    WANG Guang-Li, SUN Fan
    2005, 48(5):  785-791. 
    Abstract ( 3039 )   PDF (1458KB) ( 1161 )     
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    Semiochemicals in scarabs include sex pheromones, aggregation pheromones and attractants of plant origin. Now most of the sex pheromones identified are related to Rutelidae and Melolonthidae, only a few of aggregation pheromones were identified in Dynastidae. Studies on attractants of plant origin are related to Rutelidae and Cetoniidae. This paper summarized chemical structure characters of semiochemicals in scarabs, and reviewed the unique reciprocal role of chiral sex pheromones as agonist antagonist in chemical communication in scarabs and biosynthesis of sex pheromone.


     

    Advances in tetravirus research
    YI Fu-Ming, ZHANG Jia-Min, LIU Chuan-Feng, HU Yuan-Yang
    2005, 48(5):  792-798. 
    Abstract ( 3430 )   PDF (1491KB) ( 1025 )     
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    The family Tetraviridae is comprised of (+) ssRNA viruses and divided into the Nudaurelia β-like viruses and Nudaurelia ω like viruses. The viruses of these two genera have different genomic organization. The β-like viruses have monopartite genomes and use a subgenomic RNA to express the structural protein, while the β-like viruses have bipartite genomes composed of two unique RNA molecules, which encode the replicases and the structural proteins, respectively. There is a tRNA-like structure on the 3′-termini of the tetravirus genomic RNAs. The coat proteins of the ω like viruses show 66%-86% amino acid sequence identities, while the overall homologies between the coat proteins of the β-like viruses are  much lower. When the coat protein ORFs of tetraviruses are expressed in insect cells, they are all able to form virus-like particles. The paper also reviewed advances on replication mechanism of tetrviruses and the evolutionary relationship among tetraviruses and others.



     

    Construction and expression of the transgenic vector pBacA3EG in the silkworm Bombyx mori
    XU Han-Fu, XIA Qing-You, LIU Chun, WU Xue-Feng, YANG Yuan-Ping, ZHAO Ping, XIANG Zhong-Huai
    2005, 48(5):  799-803. 
    Abstract ( 3495 )   PDF (3275KB) ( 1304 )     
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    Using three basic elements, i.e., actin 3 promoter of Bombyx mori, enhanced
     green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene and the identified sequence of polyadenylation acid in SV40, the piggyBac transposon vector pBacA3EG was constructed. This vector was further confirmed by PCR, enzyme digestion and sequencing analysis, and the results showed that all elements had been inserted into the piggyBac vector correctly. Stronger green fluorescent was observed under the stereoscopic fluorescence microscope three days after the reconstructed vector was injected into the preblastodermic eggs. The results showed that the vector was constructed correctly and expressed in silkworm eggs. The transient expression of silkworm transgenic vector is not only the first step necessary for silkworm transgene, but also can be applied in gene function analysis, which establishes the foundation for functional studies of silkworm genome.



     

    Cloning and analysis of cDNA fragments of two odorant binding proteins from the antenna of Musca domestica
    ZHU Bin-Bin, JIANG Yong, NIU Chang-Ying, ZHOU Xing-Miao, LEI Chao-Liang
    2005, 48(5):  804-809. 
    Abstract ( 2548 )   PDF (1553KB) ( 1224 )     
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    Two cDNA fragments of two different odorant binding protein (OBP) genes in Musca domestica were amplified with two pairs of specific primers by RT-PCR, and the lengths of them were 381 bp named MdomOBP1 (GenBank accession no.: AY730350) and 353 bp named MdomOBP2 (GenBank accession no.: AY730351) respectively. Sequencing and analysis showed that these two OBP cDNA fragments were characterized by typical conservative Cys. Deduced amino acid sequences were highly similar to that of six OBPs from Diptera, with sequence identities of 57%-88% for MdomOBP1 and 52%-91% for MdomOBP2

     

    Molecular identification of the primary and secondary symbionts of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer)
    LI Zheng-Xi, LI Ding-Xu
    2005, 48(5):  810-814. 
    Abstract ( 3388 )   PDF (1464KB) ( 1062 )     
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    Aphids harbor not only primary endosymbionts, namely Buchnera aphidicola, but also different secondary symbionts. A single comigrating DNA band of about 1.5 kb was amplified from a population of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) collected from the experimental fields in China Agricultural University (Beijing) using a pair of “universal" primers designed based on the full 16S rDNA of a wide range of eubacteria. This target DNA was then ligated to T-vector and cloned into E. coli DH5α. The clones were analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The results showed that EcoRⅠcut the insert into two sub-fragments (~650 bp and ~850 bp) in all assayed samples, while double digestion with EcoRⅠ and HindⅢ resulted in two different groups of RE (restriction enzyme) bands, with GroupⅠhaving only one EcoRⅠ site but Group Ⅱ having one EcoRⅠ site and one HindⅢ site. Meanwhile, GroupⅠis dominant. Based on RE grouping, the full 16S rDNA representative sequences from different groups were sequenced, and the phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that GroupⅠ belonged to Pantoea, closely related to P. agglomerans (homology: 99.70%), whereas GroupⅡwas closely related to Buchnera aphidicola, the obligate symbiont of aphids (homology: 99.50%). This is the first report that Pantoea exists in aphids.

     

    Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the wsp gene of Wolbachia in Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    CONG Bin,FU Hai-Bin,WANG Cui-Min,DAI Qiu-Hui
    2005, 48(5):  815-818. 
    Abstract ( 3031 )   PDF (1416KB) ( 1197 )     
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    Wolbachia is a common and widespread group of bacteria found in arthropods. These bacteria have evolved various mechanisms for manipulating reproduction of their hosts. The presence of Wolbachia in a laboratory population of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) was firstly identified based on amplification and sequencing part of the wsp gene. Aligned the obtained sequence with the published ones, the phylogenetic relationships among Wolbachia found in C. cephalonica and other insects were established. The Wolbachia found in C. cephalonica belong to the Pip group, far separated from the groups of Wolbachia found in braconid wasps and Trichogramma spp. It was so inferred that Wolbachia did not transmit horizontally between C. cephalonica and its parasitoids (Apanteles sp. and Trichogramma spp.).

    Sequence analysis of ubiquitinlike gene of Antheraea pernyi nuclear polyhedrosis virus
    WANG Li-Qun, WANG Wen-Bing, SHEN Wei-De, WU Hui-Ling, YU Feng
    2005, 48(5):  819-822. 
    Abstract ( 2843 )   PDF (1502KB) ( 881 )     
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    Polyhedron particles of Antheraea pernyi nuclear polyhedrosis virus (ApNPV) were purified from A. pernyi pupa. The genomic DNA of ApNPV was extracted, and the viral DNA was digested by HindⅢ and SalⅠ, respectively. A viral fragment with a length 321 base pairs was sequenced, which contains a 76 amino acid residues open reading frame with deductive a molecular weight 8.46 kD, homologous to ubiquitin. By comparing the identity of amino acid sequence of the gene with that of baculoviruses and other organisms, it was found that ApNPV ubiquitin gene had the highest identity (96.1%) with Orgyia pseudotsugata multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (OpNPV), the second high identity with Autographa californica NPV (AcNPV, 86.8%), and the lowest identity with Adoxophyes orana granulovirus (AoGV, 71.1%), while had 77.6% to 76.3% identity with that of human, nematode and yeast. Although a number of amino acid residues are conservative in the eukaryotic ubiquitin, they are diverse in baculovirus ubiquitin gene. Several amino acid residues are unique to the baculovirus ubiquitin genes.