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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 June 2009, Volume 52 Issue 6
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Effect of several factors on the transformation efficiency in the transgenic technology of silkworm, Bombyx mori.
    2009, 52(6):  595-603. 
    Abstract ( 3685 )   PDF (3062KB) ( 1680 )     
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    Efficient transgenic technology of silkworm is the key to promote the functional research of silkworm genome, and to solve the major problems in the sericulture industry. On the basis of the established transgenic technology in silkworm, we investigated the effect of several factors on transformation efficiency. The results showed that when taking P50 as a recipient strain, pBac[GOI]as a donor plasmid and pHA4PIG as a helper plasmid, and red fluorescent protein gene, DsRed, driven by an eye-specific promoter, 3×p3, as a reporter gene, microinjection into the eggs during 2-3 h after oviposition increased the transformation efficiency. The hatching rate of injected eggs and the transformation rate were 62.7% and 34.8%, respectively. The best time for fluorescent screening was the 5th to 8th day of embryo. The results also showed that when varied from 2 000 to 8 000 bp the length of inserts had no significant effect on transformation rate. The results will set a model for transgensis of other lepidopteran insects and will contribute to the functional genomics study of the silkworm and the development of molecular bioreactors involved.
    Effects of different incubation on expression of catalase gene in the bivoltine silkworm (Bombyx mori)
    2009, 52(6):  604-609. 
    Abstract ( 3307 )   PDF (837KB) ( 1283 )     
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    When eggs of the bivoltine silkworm, Bombyx mori, are incubated at 25℃ under illumination and 15℃ under darkness, diapause and nondiapause eggs are laid, respectively. Our previous studies revealed that there was a significant difference in the level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) between the two incubation treatments in the bivoltine silkworm. Catalase is the key enzyme to scavenge H2O2 in insects. In this study the expression of catalase gene of the silkworm with two above incubation treatments was determined with RT-PCR to investigate the regulatory mechanism of H2O2 metabolism. The results indicated that compared to the 15℃ under darkness incubation, enhanced mRNA level and activity of catalase in the 25℃ under illumination incubation were observed at the induction and decision stage of diapause in maternal generation. In diapause eggs, catalase mRNA peaked at 24 h but disappeared at 72 h and thereafter while its activity increased until 96 h but kept at a low level and varied slightly 120 h after oviposition. In nondiapause eggs, however, both mRNA level and activity of catalase increased coinciding with embryogenesis. The results suggest that the induction of progeny diapause in the bivoltine B. mori by the 25℃ under illumination incubation may regulate the H2O2 level via affecting expression of catalase gene.
    Expression and localization analysis of general odorant binding protein 1 (GOBP1) gene in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    2009, 52(6):  610-616. 
    Abstract ( 3176 )   PDF (3848KB) ( 1219 )     
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    Odor chemically mediates Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) mating and oviposition behaviors, and odorant-binding protein (OBP) on the moth antenna is one of the important kinds of proteins involved in chemical communication with the environment. In this study the primers were designed according to the sequence of S. litura GOBP1 (GenBank accession no. EF159978) reported before, and the tissue expression pattern of GOBP1 in the moth was analyzed by using RT-PCR technology. The results showed that GOBP1 is an antennal-specific protein and expresses only in the antennae of S. litura. The fragments of GOBP1 gene were also cloned, sequenced and blasted against GenBank. The further experiments of localization of GOBP1’s mRNA by in situ hybridization methods revealed that the GOBP1 specifically express in the tissue of moth antenna, and their transcripts were more widely distributed in the cells bordering of the antennal surfaces where the chemosensory hairs are located. The results suggest that GOBP1 plays crucial roles in moth olfaction recognition. Our findings provide the basis for the further study on the function of GOBP1 and its interaction with spatial localization of other proteins.
    Effects of mineral oil application on the orientation and feeding behaviour of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Homoptera:Aphidae) (In English)
    2009, 52(6):  617-623. 
    Abstract ( 3518 )   PDF (926KB) ( 2246 )     
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    Application of mineral oil both in the fields and in the laboratory has been shown to efficiently reduce the transmission of non-persistent phytoviruses by aphids. In this study we investigated the influence a mineral oil spray on potato plants has on the behaviour of Macrosiphum euphorbiae, 24 h and 7 d after treatment. The aphid response towards oil treated plant volatiles was investigated using a darkened arena bioassay. The effect of oil treatment on aphid trophic behaviour was assessed using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Mineral oil treatment induced a lack of attractiveness of the host-plant, which lasted at least 24 h. The feeding behaviour of M. euphorbiae was modified on oil treated potato plants 24 h and 7 d after treatment. “Time from start of recording to first probe” was reduced but only significantly at 7 d after treatment, suggesting the facilitation of aphid stylet insertion. However, salivations phases and phloem sap feeding (ingestion phases) were significantly delayed. The modifications of aphid behaviour observed in this study are not drastic enough to explain the 7 d protection observed in mineral oil sprayed fields and other potential mechanisms may exist.
    Optimization of the method for solid phase extraction of antiviral peptides from haemolymph of diapausing larvae of Musca domestica with methanol.
    2009, 52(6):  624-630. 
    Abstract ( 3306 )   PDF (2923KB) ( 951 )     
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    In order to optimize the conditions of antiviral peptide extraction from haemolymph of diapausing housefly (Musca domestica) larvae with methanol, we compared the separating results of methanol and methyl cyanide and selected the best extraction gradient. After studying the proper protein sample concentration, eluting times, eluting velocity and eluting temperature, we got a better protocol which leads to perfect results of antiviral peptide extraction. Tricine-SDS-PAGE results showed that continuous gradient methanol as an extractive organic solvent eluted more active fractions than methyl cyanide (P<0.05), and the continuous gradient elution with mthanol (10%-100%) was better than interrupted gradient (10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90%;20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%, respectively)in the recovery rate and reproducibility of active fractions. Under 0-4℃, when 1.5±0.4 mg/mL haemolymph extracts was added into Sep-Pak C18 catridge and eluted 4 times with the flowing velocity of 1 mL/min, the antiviral fractions were separated better. Upon electrophoresis, only 2 target protein bands of active fractions were eluted by methyl cyanide, while more bands were eluted by methanol.
    Synergism of insecticides by enzyme inhibitors in the resistant populations of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (In English)
    2009, 52(6):  631-639. 
    Abstract ( 3680 )   PDF (1223KB) ( 6041 )     
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    The effect of enzyme inhibitors piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and tribufos (DEF) was studied in combination with insecticides profenofos, methomyl, thiodicarb, cypermethrin, λ-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, indoxacarb, and spinosad in the resistant Pakistani populations of Spodoptera litura using a leaf-dip bioassay. Both the inhibitors synergised carbamates methomyl and thiodicarb but showed no synergistic effect on an organophosphate profenofos. These inhibitors produced a synergism with cypermethrin but had no synergism with bifenthrin. PBO and DEF enhanced the toxicity of λ-cyhalothrin and indoxacarb in one population but not in the other. Spinosad was synergised by DEF but not by PBO. The potent synergism of carbamates, pyrethroids, indoxacarb and spinosad by PBO and DEF in the present study indicates that detoxification by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases is at least partially involved in imparting resistance to these insecticides in S. litura. However, a limited synergism of insecticides shown by both the synergists implies that other mechanisms such as target site insensitivity and reduced cuticular penetration may be more important mechanisms of resistance in the Pakistani populations of S. litura.
    Estimating developmental rates of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pupae at constant and alternating temperatures by nonlinear models
    2009, 52(6):  640-650. 
    Abstract ( 3237 )   PDF (1383KB) ( 1117 )     
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    Developmental durations (d) of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) pupae were determined at constant temperatures from 15 to 37℃ and alternating temperatures from 12/18 to 34/40℃ for comprehensive analyses on insect development in relation to temperature. Both linear model and nonlinear models (Logan model, Lactin model and Wang model) were used to fit the observed data, and these nonlinear models gave a more accurate description of temperature-dependent developmental rates with the coefficients of determination (R2) ranging from 0.9878 to 0.9991. Further fitting various numbers of the observed data showed that so long as six cases of them distributed in the proper way, these nonlinear models could estimate pupal developmental rate with high satisfaction. On the other hand, lack of the data at high temperature would give a false prediction. A possible cause for difference between developmental rates of the pupae at constant and alternating temperatures is illustrated. The strong and weak points of the three nonlinear models when applied to estimate the pupal developmental rate are commented. The results suggest that the nonlinear models may be of significant value in improving prediction of insect pest occurrence as well as rearing and management of beneficial insects as alternative to linear degree-day model.
    Induction of summer diapause in the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) based on a quantitative photoperiodic response
    2009, 52(6):  651-655. 
    Abstract ( 3441 )   PDF (672KB) ( 1541 )     
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    To understand the nature of photoperiodic time measurement in the induction of summer diapause of the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly, the incidence of summer diapause of C. bowringi under different long day-lengths and the number of light-dark cycles required to induce 50% individuals to enter summer diapause at 25℃ was investigated in the laboratory. The results showed that the incidences of summer diapause induced by different long day-lengths were different significantly. The incidence of diapause induced by day-length of 15 h or 16 h was the highest, and the incidence of diapause significantly declined when the day-length was longer or shorter than 15 h or 16 h. In the transferring experiments of different light-dark cycles, the incidence of diapause induced by the day-length of 14 h did not exceed 50%. The number of light-dark cycles required to induce 50% individuals to enter summer diapause was 2.61 d at L15∶D9, 3.72 d at L16∶D8, 4.64 d at L17∶D7 and 5.92 d at L18∶D6, showing significant differences between the treatments. The results suggest that the induction of summer diapause in this beetle is based on a quantitative photoperiodic response.
    Synomonal effect of nine varieties and one culture of rice on Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead and Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii)(Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) (In English)
    2009, 52(6):  656-664. 
    Abstract ( 3587 )   PDF (1100KB) ( 1899 )     
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    Bioassays of the hexane extracts of nine varieties viz., Pusa Sugandh-2, Pusa Basmati-1, Pusa-2511, Pusa Basmati-370, Pusa-1077, Karnal Local, PRR-78, Jaya, Pusa-1238 and one culture of rice, Culture No.34 in vegetative and flowering phase were carried out in Petri dish, to observe their synomonal effect on mean parasitoid activity index (PAI) and mean percent parasitism by Trichogramma japonicum, Ashmead and Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii). The hexane extracts of different rice varieties were subjected to gas liquid chromatography to determine the saturated hydrocarbons. Among these, leaf extracts from variety Pusa Sugandh-2 elicited maximum response in vegetative phase for both the parasitoids by way of mean percent parasitism. Whereas in flowering phase variety Pusa Basmati-1 elicited maximum mean percent parasitism. Gas liquid chromatography of the leaf extracts from vegetative phase revealed that Pusa Sugandh-2 had two favorable hydrocarbons pentacosane (C25) and nonacosane (C29). Gas liquid chromatography of leaf extract from flowering stage also revealed that Pusa Basmati-1 had three favorable hydrocarbons viz., pentacosane (C25), hexacosane (C26) and nonacosane (C29) which could be ascribed to the highest response elicited by these varieties.
    One-way path analysis of hazard degrees of different strains of masson pine (Pinus massoniana) infested by Hemiberlesiaa pitysophila (Homoptera: Diaspididae)
    2009, 52(6):  665-671. 
    Abstract ( 3205 )   PDF (998KB) ( 964 )     
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    In order to study the hazard degree of Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi to different strains of Pinus massoniana, and reveal the direct and indirect damage reflected by indicators of the number of insects, six indicators consisting of population density etc. in a selected test forest was investigated, and one-way path analysis method was adopted. The results showed that the most positive indicators of direct impact were population density and the ratio of damaged needle, but the largest negative indicator of indirect impact just was the ratio of damaged needle. Generally speaking, the important indicators reflecting the increasing degree of damage were successively as follows: population density, the ratio of infested slash pine trees, the number of the breeding insects in a certain time, the survival rate of the 1st instar larvae, the survival rate of the 2nd instar larvae, the ratio of damaged needle. The 28 masson pine strains surveyed could be divided into four categories, of which no. 390 and no. 439 strains were the most damaged, while no. 458 and no. 469 strains were the least damaged. The analyzed results were basically coherent and in line with the reality. Therefore, the results provided an important reference to select study indicators and the selecting and breeding of insect-resistant pedigree. One-way path analysis method, with a certain degree of rationality and innovation in theory, was feasible in practice and worthy of research and popularization.
    Genetic diversity of four geographical populations of the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) revealed by RAPD
    2009, 52(6):  672-678. 
    Abstract ( 3620 )   PDF (2583KB) ( 1166 )     
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    The genetic diversity of four geographical populations of Colaphellus bowringi Baly was analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Sixty-five amplified loci and 53 polymorphic loci were obtained using 11 primers selected from 80 random primers. The Nei’s genetic diversity and Shannon genetic diversity indexes of the 4 populations were 0.1049-0.2061 and 0.1641-0.3167, respectively. The results showed the genetic diversity of the assayed populations was high, of which Tai’an population of Shandong (SDT) has the highest level of the genetic diversity, while Longnan population of Jiangxi (JXL) has the lowest. The genetic distances ranged from 0.0636 (between Longnan population of Jiangxi and Xiushui population of Jiangxi) to 0.3200 (between Longnan population of Jiangxi and Harbin population) among the 4 populations, indicating that the genetic distances among C. bowringi populations match with their geographical distances. The results suggest that the genetic distance might be correlated with their biological similarity.
    A taxonomic study of the genus Conophymacris Willemse (Orthoptera:Catantopidae) from China, with descriptions of two new species
    2009, 52(6):  679-683. 
    Abstract ( 3289 )   PDF (674KB) ( 932 )     
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    The genus Conophymacris Willemse from China was reviewed, with ten species recorded, including two new species:Conophymacris xianggelilaensis Niu et Zheng, sp. nov. and Conophymacris jiulongensis Zheng et Shi, sp. nov. A key to the species of Conophymacris from China is provided. Type specimens are kept in the Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University and Museum of Hebei University.
    A review of the genus Scopelodes Westwood in China (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) (In English)
    2009, 52(6):  684-690. 
    Abstract ( 3831 )   PDF (3339KB) ( 1346 )     
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    Eight species of the genus Scopelodes Westwood are recognized from China, including a new species, S. bicolor, described herein. Scopelodes kwangtungensis Hering is accorded specific status. The adult and genitalia photographs of the examined species are given. A key to the Chinese species of the genus is provided.
    Three assumptions of high dose/refuge strategy for resistance management of Bt crops:a review
    2009, 52(6):  691-698. 
    Abstract ( 4744 )   PDF (1393KB) ( 1655 )     
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    The high dose/refuge strategy is being applied primarily in field for the resistance management of Bt crops, and its success depends on three essential assumptions. These three assumptions are:(1) Bt-engineered crops must produce a high dose of Bt insecticidal protein to kill most heterozygotes; (2) Initial frequency of alleles conferring resistance in target pest species must be rare; (3) Susceptible adults that survived in refuges are expected to intermingling and mating with resistant adults that survived in Bt fields. We reviewed theoretical and empirical results related to these assumptions, and focused on the recent advances in random mating assumption and presented some new theoretical outcomes resulted from modeling researches. We also discussed the direction of upcoming researches and related techniques briefly.
    Baits and traps of fruit flies
    2009, 52(6):  699-706. 
    Abstract ( 4667 )   PDF (1295KB) ( 1156 )     
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    Many species in family Tephritidae are important quarantine pests worldwide. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) have actively proposed to implement the control of fruit flies by international cooperation and published control technique guidelines for the pest and related international standards of plant quarantine. As one of the major measures in monitoring, investigating and controlling the fruit flies, baits and traps are extensively adopted. Main baits commonly approved are protein attractants (PA), methyl eugenol (ME), cuelure (CUE), ammonium acetate (AA), ammonium salts (AS), trimedlure (TML), butyl hexanoate (BuH) and 2-methyl-vinyl-pyrazine (MVP). There are over twenty types of traps used worldwide for fruit flies, which are divided into three types: dry traps, wet traps and dry/wet traps based on ways of capturing the flies. Moreover, many traps are manufactured by various plastic bottles in China. This article summarized the research and application of baits and traps, and proposed that the international standard baits and traps should be used in the establishment of pest free areas (PRA) for fruit flies. Many Chinese bait and trap products require international approbation, which may help to promote our agro-production to enter the international markets. Design of baits and traps should be standardized and protected by patents to be suitable to international adoption.
    PCR-based early detection of Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus (HcNPV)
    2009, 52(6):  707-712. 
    Abstract ( 3619 )   PDF (1520KB) ( 1117 )     
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    Two pairs of specific primers were used for the detection of Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus (HcNPV) by PCR. The two pairs of primers were both designed based on gene pe38 of HcNPV genome. The sizes of amplified fragments were 994 and 614 bp, respectively. The two pairs of primers were further used to detect the amount of viral DNA in diseased larvae or polyhedron of HcNPV. The minimum amount of detection could be as low as 1 fg of total DNA or 3-4 OBs/mL of polyhedron. The amount of viral DNA in hemolymph sampled from the larvae infected by different concentrations of polyhedron at different time points was also investigated, and it was found that the lower the concentration of polyhedron used, the later the viral DNA will be detected.