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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 January 2012, Volume 55 Issue 1
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Transcriptome characteristics of Phyllotreta striolata (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) analyzed by using Illumina’s Solexa sequencing technology
    HE Hua-Liang, BIN Shu-Ying, WU Zhong-Zhen, LIN Jin-Tian
    2012, 55(1):  1-11. 
    Abstract ( 3060 )   PDF (9440KB) ( 1610 )     
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    The striped flea beetle, Phyllotreta striolata (Fabricius), is an important pest damaging cruciferous vegetables. In order to investigate the profile of gene expression and elucidate the functional genes, we sequenced the transcriptome of the adult of P. striolata by Illumina’s Solexa sequencing technology, and analyzed the data of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) by using SOAPdenovo system. A total of 4 924 contigs were obtained including 2 209 unigenes of orthologous genes relating to Drosophila melanogaster and 610 species-specific unigenes of P. striolata based on Gene Ontology and KEGG databases. We found that most of unigenes contain function domains with binding capacity and catalytic activity. More than 100 unigenes are involved in gamete generation, ovarian follicle cell development and mating behavior. Three hundred sixty-three unigenes may be involved in 40 different metabolic pathways based on KEGG database. The finding that 363 unigenes are involved in regulation pathway of biological rhythm and plant secondary metabolites will be useful to clarify the mechanism of behaviors of this insect such as oviposition rhythm, etc. Moreover, the sequence resources presented in this study provide useful information to develop new strategies to manage this pest.
    Characterization of three new members of the apidermin (apd) gene family from honeybees and sequence analysis of the insect APD family
    SUN Liang-Xian, HUANG Zhou-Ying, ZHENG Hua-Jun, GE Qing-Xiu, GONG Li-Ping, CHEN Huai-Yu
    2012, 55(1):  12-23. 
    Abstract ( 4956 )   PDF (20537KB) ( 1759 )     
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    The apidermin (APD) protein family is a novel structural cuticular protein family of insects. To gain a better understanding of this protein family, by using bioinformatics and RT-PCR amplification, we identified three novel apd genes (apd-1-like, apd-3-like from Apis mellifera ligustica, and apd-2 from Apis cerana cerana) and investigated their structural features, and then we revealed the characteristic motifs of the APD family. The results showed that a cluster of six apd genes were tandemly arranged on chromosome 4 of Apis mellifera. These apd genes were differentially expressed in drone head of A. m. ligustica, and their expression pattern was consistent with that of the cis-acting elements in their promoter sequences. The genomic DNA of apd-2 from A .c. cerana and apd-1-like from A. m. ligustica contain three exons and two introns, while that of apd-3-like from A. m. ligustica contain four exons and three introns. As the deduced proteins of the apd genes were analyzed, it was found that the presently available 10 APDs possess similar N-terminal signal peptide sequences. The mature APD proteins ranged in size from 6.0 to 37.0 kD, and their pI ranged from 6.2 to 10.8. Intriguingly, five small APD proteins, including APD-2 from A. cerana, and APD 1-3 and APD-like from A. mellifera, were rich in hydrophobic amino acid residues (52%-67%)  with Ala being the most abundant (25%-34%). However, the other five larger APDs, including APD 1-3 from Nasonia vitripennis, and APD-1-like and APD-3-like from A. mellifera, were Gly-rich (21%-30%) proteins with hydrophobic amino acid residues constituting 35%-41% of their amino acid sequences. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the APD protein family could be classified into two subfamilies. Subfamily Ⅰ, which contains four low complexity sequences (APD 1-3 from A. mellifera and APD-2 from A. cerana), was characterized by a 33-aa N-terminal conserved motif. The other six larger APD proteins were classified as subfamilyⅡ, which was featured by a 50-aa N-terminal motif and a 16-aa C-terminal motif. The diagnostic features of APD protein family described here will be very helpful for identifying novel apd genes from arthropods.
    Instant hydrochloride acid soaking enhances NAD(H) and NADP(H) levels in diapausing eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    YAO Jin-Mei, WAN Hua-Xing, SIMa Yang-Hu, ZHAO Lin-Chuan
    2012, 55(1):  24-28. 
    Abstract ( 3124 )   PDF (5080KB) ( 1282 )     
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    For diapausing eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, diapause initiation is prevented with instant hydrochloric acid (HCl) soaking, which can cause the marked enhancement of oxygen consumption and the inhibition of sorbitol accumulation. NAD(H) and NADP(H) levels in diapause eggs and those soaked with HCl for 5 min at 24 h after oviposition were determined using HPLC methods. From 24 h to 72 h after oviposition, levels of NAD, NADH, NADP and NADPH in diapausing eggs decreased by 30%, 37%, 50% and 4%, respectively, whereas those in diapausing eggs soaked with HCl increased by 77%, 46%, 142% and 241%, respectively. Moreover, no significant effect of HCl on both NADH/NAD and NADPH/NADP ratios was observed. It is so inferred that, in diapausing eggs soaked with HCl, the marked increase of NAD(H) is involved in the marked enhancement of oxygen consumption, whereas the enhancement of NADP(H) is related to the stronger biosynthesis rather than the inhibition of sorbitol accumulation.
    Inhibitory effects of tebufenozide on dopa decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase in 5th instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    WANG Tao, QIU Xiu-Cui, JIAO Yan-Yan, LIU Hui, LIU Yong-Jie
    2012, 55(1):  29-35. 
    Abstract ( 3126 )   PDF (1113KB) ( 1293 )     
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    Tebufenozide acting in a similar fashion of ecdysone was found to produce phenotypic effects that finally interfere the formation of new larval cuticle in insects. To explore the effects of tebufenozide on the enzyme activities related to the formation of new cuticle in insects, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent assay was used to determine the activities of dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in 5th instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua which were continuously treated with tebufenozide for different time. The results indicated that after the larvae were treated with two sublethal concentrations (LC11 28.41 μmol/L and LC33 85.23 μmol/L) of tebufenozide, the activities of DDC and TH were significantly inhibited, and the inhibitory effect was more marked when the larvae were treated with tebufenozide at the high sublethal concentration than at the low sublethal concentration. The inhibition rates of DDC and TH activities were raised with treatment time at the same sublethal concentration. Tebufenozide had the similar inhibitory effects on DDC and TH activities in the midgut, head, fat body, hemolymph and cuticle of the 5th instar larvae as on those in the whole larval body. It is so concluded that the interference in the formation of new larval cuticle is likely related to the inhibition of DDC and TH activities by tebufenozide.
    Acute toxicity and safety evaluation of neonicotinoids and macrocyclic lactiones to adult wasps of four Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammidae)
    WANG Yan-Hua, YU Rui-Xian, ZHAO Xue-Ping, AN Xue-Hua, CHEN Li-Ping, WU Chang-Xing, WANG Qiang
    2012, 55(1):  36-45. 
    Abstract ( 4329 )   PDF (1733KB) ( 1417 )     
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    To clarify the side effects of insecticides on trichogrammatid wasps, acute toxicities of neonicotinoids and macrocyclic lactiones to adult Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead, Trichogramma ostriniae Pang et Chen, Trichogramma confusum Viggiani and Trichogramma evanescens Westwood were determined by using the dry film residue method under laboratory conditions, and the safety of these insecticides was also evaluated. Among the neonicotinoids tested, thiamethoxam showed the highest intrinsic toxicity to T. confusum and T. japonicum with the LC50 values of 0.24 (0.21-0.27) and 0.40 (0.37-0.44) mg a.i./L, respectively. Nitenpyram had the less toxicity to T. confusum and T. japonicum with the LC50 values of 0.83 (0.74-0.96) and 0.72 (0.65-0.80) mg a.i./L, respectively. Imidacloprid exhibited the least toxicity to T. ostriniae and T. confusum with the LC50 values of 502.13 (459.80-549.62) and 752.62 (687.51-828.63) mg a.i./L, respectively. Among the macrocyclic lactiones selected, abamectin showed the highest toxicity to T. japonicum with the LC50 of 0.49 (0.46-0.65) mg a.i./L, whereas emamectin benzoate had the lowest toxicity to T. confusum with the LC50 of 21.76 (19.59-24.40) mg a.i./L. Results of safety evaluation showed that imidacloprid, acetamiprid, imidaclothiz and emamectin benzoate were classified as low to moderate risk with the safety factor of 0.57-23.54, and thiacloprid and ivermectin were ranked as moderate to high risk with the safety factor of 0.16-3.45, while nitenpyram, thiamethoxam and abamectin were classified as high to extremely high risk with the safety factor of 0.01-0.15. Most of the insecticides here tested have the potential risk of acute toxicity, so the use of neonicotinoids and macrocyclic lactiones, especially for nitenpyram, thiamethoxam and abamectin, should be evaluated carefully in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for avoiding serious damages to trichogrammatid wasps.
    Reproduction behavior and circadian rhythm of sex pheromone production and release in Parocneria orienta (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)
    ZHANG Kun-Sheng, YANG Wei, ZHUO Zhi-Hang, DENG Zhong-Bin, YANG Chun-Ping, YANG Hua, ZHOU Jian-Hua, XIAO Yin-Bo, JIA Yu-Zhen
    2012, 55(1):  46-54. 
    Abstract ( 3910 )   PDF (7098KB) ( 1474 )     
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    In order to explore the rhythm of sex production and release of Parocneria orienta Chao, to establish the basis for using sex pheromone to monitor and control the pest, the emergence, calling, mating and oviposition behaviors of P. orienta were studied through observations in the fields and in the laboratory under the conditions of 22±1℃, 75%-80% RH and 14L∶10D photoperiod. The circadian rhythm of sex pheromone production and release in P. orienta were studied by determining the electroantennogram (EAG) response. The results showed that the emergence of P. orienta happened during the day, especially from 1:00 to 5:00, accounting for 44.94% of the total. The nuptial flight and mating behaviors took place from 7:30 to 11:00. The peak of mating occurred at 8:30 or so. The calling and mating behaviors were both observed during the photophase. Calling time varied with the age of female, with older (2- to 3-dayold) virgin females calling later and longer calling duration than younger (1-day-old) females. The 1-day-old female had shorter lasting time of mating. The mating rate of 2-day-old females was the highest (36.67%). The maximum oviposition in the whole life of a female was up to 402 eggs, and the minimum was 78 eggs. The amount of pheromone in the gland was relatively low at 1 d after emergence, with a peak at 2 d after emergence, and then decreased gradually day by day. The amount of pheromone of 2-day-old virgin females began to increase gradually post 7:00, with the peak between 8:30 and 9:30, and then decreased gradually post 9:30. EAG response was the strongest from 8:30 to 9:00. The peak of sex pheromone production and release of P. orienta occurred between 8:30 and 9:00. There was a circadian rhythm in the emergence, calling and mating, and the sex production and release of adults. The sex pheromone release and mating behavior of P. orienta were synchronized, which was confirmed in field tests by using virgin females to trap males.
    Alternative hosts of Sclerodermus pupariae (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a larval parasitoid of the longhorn beetle Massicus raddei (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
    TANG Yan-Long, WANG Xiao-Yi, YANG Zhong-Qi, JIANG Jing, WANG Xiao-Hong, LU Jun
    2012, 55(1):  55-62. 
    Abstract ( 3786 )   PDF (1172KB) ( 1089 )     
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    During the study on a biocontrol program by releasing a parasitoid, Sclerodermus pupariae Yang et Yao (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), for control of Massicus raddei (Blessig) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a wood borer with long generation period and developmental uniformity of Quercus liaotungensis Koidz and Q. mongolica Fischer in northeastern China, it was found that the parasitoid preferred to parasitize the 1st-3rd instar larvae of the pest with high parasitization rate, but not on elder host larvae (over 3rd instars). In order to understand the maintenance of the parasitoid population and whether sustainable control effect after its release, an investigation on alternative hosts of the parasitoid was carried out in oak forests. We found several alternative hosts in the oak trees attacked by M. raddei, including Moechotypa diphysis (Pascoe), Masosa myops Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and Lamprodila virgata (Motchulsky) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The parasitoid inoculation test indicated that there were significant differences in parasitism on different potential hosts with the high parasitization rates on both M. diphysis (76.67%) and L. virgata (73.33%). When the bethylid parasitized the four host species above, between them the differences in preoviposition period, number of eggs laid, number of females produced and the emergence rate, body length and life-span in the 2nd generation were not significant, and only the larval and pupal duration as well as the rate of females with wings and the ratio of female to male showed a little difference. The parasitization rates on larvae of M. diphysis and M. myops were higher than those on other hosts, and the biological observation in forests indicated that the larvae of the two cerambycids always existed during the unfavorite developmental periods (i.e., over 3rd instar larval and pupal stages) of M. raddei for the bethylid to parasitize, clearly suggesting that the two cerambycid species are the main alternative hosts of S. pupariae in oak forests. The results of the present study indicated that the biocontrol program using S. pupariae could have sustainable control effects on M. raddei for the bethylid after releasing of the parasitoid, M. diphysis, M. myops and other wood pests can be used as alternative hosts to keep its high population, and when the proper larval stage of M. raddei in the next generation appeared, it could transfer to the main host for parasitization.
    Color preference of female adults of Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)
    LUO Yong-Li, WANG De-Sen, HE Yu-Rong, GUO Xiang-Ling, XIE Mei-Qiong
    2012, 55(1):  63-69. 
    Abstract ( 2742 )   PDF (7091KB) ( 1709 )     
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    In order to screen the preferred color of Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja, the behaviour responses of T. bactrae to seven colors, i.e., red, yellow, black, purple, green, white and blue, were investigated with petri dishes pasted underside with color papers in the laboratory. The results revealed that the retention duration of female wasps was significantly longer on red, yellow, purple, green and blue papers than on transparent ones (control) (P< 0.01), but not on black and white ones. The percentage of first choice by female wasps to yellow was extremely significantly higher than to transparent color (P< 0.01), and that to red, purple, green or blue was significant higher than to transparent color (P<0.05), but that to black and white was not significantly different from the control. In selection tests of two colors, the retention duration of female wasps on the yellow paper was significantly longer than those on other four colors when compared on yellow paper with red, purple, green and blue paper, respectively. However, in selection tests of multiple colors with red, purple, green, blue and yellow, no obvious differences were detected in percentage of the first choice and retention time of the wasps to five colors; while the retention duration of wasps on red and blue papers was significantly longer than on purple one, but no significant differences were detected between on these three color papers and on both yellow and green papers. The number of parasitized eggs on yellow paper was extremely significant higher than on the transparent paper (P<0.01), while the number of parasitized eggs on black paper was extremely significant less than that on the transparent paper (P<0.01). The number of parasitized eggs on the other five color papers, i.e., red, blue, purple, green and white, was not significantly different from that on the transparent paper. In conclusion, T. bactrae has the highest preference to yellow, less preference to red, purple, green and blue, but the least preference to white and black.
    Behavioral responses of encountering adults of the white-striped longhorn beetle, Batocera lineolata (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in the laboratory conditions
    YANG Hua, YANG Wei, YANG Chun-Ping, YANG Mao-Fa, WANG Bao-Xin, ZHU Tian-Hui, HUANG Qiong
    2012, 55(1):  70-76. 
    Abstract ( 3232 )   PDF (8466KB) ( 1416 )     
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    In order to search the mating system of male and female adults of the white-striped longhorn beetle, Batocera lineolata Chevrolat, we studied the encountering behavior of male and female of B. lineolata by laboratory observation in combination with automatic record and analysis through video tracking capture system (EthoVision 3.1). The test results by behavior instrument showed that the intersection time of two tracks and net relative movements between one male and one female were longer than that between one female and one female or between one male and one male during the encountering process (P<0.05), while their reaction time was shorter than that for female-female or male-male (P<0.05). In the laboratory experiment, it was observed that the encountering process of B. lineolata included three behaviors, i.e., avoidance, fight and mating. During female-female encountering process, the maximum voidance rate was 80.98% (P<0.05). In male-male encountering, the avoidance rate was 78.03%, which was much higher than the fight rate of 21.96% (P<0.05). Avoidance rate between one male or female and a couple under mating process was much higher than that for another three behaviors, i.e., fight (continue to mate), fight (finish mating) and fight (mate with new comers) (P<0.05). There was a sexual difference (P<0.05) in occurrence frequency of these three bahaviors, i.e., avoidance, fight (continue to mate) and fight (finish mating) between the male and the female. If it was the first encountering for two males, the fight rate was much higher than that for their second encountering (P<0.05), and the avoidance rate for their second encountering was much higher than that for the first time (P<0.05). But the mating rate for the first encountering of a male and a female was much higher than that for their second encountering (P<0.05). The study upon encountering behavior of B. lineolata provides the basis for studying calling mechanism and sex pheromone biosynthesis of B. lineolata as well as reproductive behavior of the adults.
    Developmental duration and life table of the laboratory population of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) fed on pumpkin at different temperatures
    WANG Ying-Ying, XU Zhi-Hong, ZHANG Li-Li, SHEN Li-Ze, FU Si-Li
    2012, 55(1):  77-83. 
    Abstract ( 3486 )   PDF (1028KB) ( 1192 )     
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    In order to explore the effects of temperature on the population growth of the Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley fed on pumpkin, the developmental duration and survivorship were investigated under the temperatures of 18, 20, 24, 26, 28 and 30℃, and the life table of the laboratory population of Ph. solenopsis was constructed. The results showed that the developmental rate of Ph. solenopsis increased with the temperature increasing from 18℃ to 30℃, and the relationship between the developmental rate and temperature could be fitted well with the Logistic model. Within the temperature range of 18-30℃, the generation time of females and males was 40.24-80.64 d and 25.21-54.31 d, respectively. The developmental threshold temperature and effective accumulated temperature of females were 7.39℃ and 889.89 day·degree, respectively, and those of the males were 8.58℃ and 523.47 day·degree, respectively. At 26℃, the survival rate and population trend index reached the highest, being 77.03% and 22.98, respectively, suggesting that 26℃ is suitable for the population growth. While the population trend indices at 18℃ and 30℃ were 2.99 and 9.80, respectively, suggesting that the population development ability of Ph. solenopsis is strong, but high and low temperatures are not suitable for the population growth of the Ph. solenopsis. This study on developmental duration and life table of the laboratory population of Ph. solenopsis provides scientific basis for its control.
    A comparative study of development and reproduction of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), on different host plants
    LUO Jin-Cang, LIU Chang-Zhong, ZHOU Zhao-Xu
    2012, 55(1):  84-90. 
    Abstract ( 3454 )   PDF (1074KB) ( 1089 )     
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    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is one of the most destructive pests infesting potatoes and other nightshade plants. In order to ascertain the influence of different host plants on development and reproduction of the Colorado potato beetle in Xinjiang, we conducted no-choice assays to determine the effects of four plants on the growth, development, and life table parameters of the Xinjiang population of the Colorado potato beetle. The results showed that the larva of L. decemlineata might feed on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), but it had the longest developmental duration and the lowest survival rate. Moreover, on tomato its pupae could not emerge to adults. The other three host plants, i.e., potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Henbane (Hyoscyamus pusillus), showed no significant effect on the survival and developmental duration of the egg, larva, pupa, and preoviposition. However, the pupal weight and adult fecundity were significantly affected by host plants, and the order of the effect from high to low were as follows: potato>eggplant>henbane. The net reproductive rate (R0), the intrinsic rates of increase (rm) and index of population trend (I) of the Xinjiang population were the highest on potato, and less on eggplant and the lowest on henbane. The results suggest that the most preferred plants for the Xinjiang population of L. decemlineata is potato, and eggplant and henbane can serve as its suitable hosts but tomato can not.
    The complete mitochondrial genome of the dragon swallowtail, Sericinus montela Gray (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its phylogenetic implication (In English)
    JI Liu-Wei, HAO Jia-Sheng, WANG Ying, HUANG Dun-Yuan, ZHAO Jin-Liang, ZHU Chao-Dong
    2012, 55(1):  91-100. 
    Abstract ( 4155 )   PDF (9874KB) ( 1454 )     
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    The phylogenetic relationship between the zerynthiids and the other groups of Papilionidae has long been a controversial issue. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Sericinus montela belonging to the zerynthiids was determined using long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic analysis of this species with other representative papilionid species was conducted to clarify their phylogenetic relationships on the mitogenomic level. The results showed that the entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule is 15 242 bp in length with the content of A, T, G and C of 40.1%, 40.8%, 7.4% and 11.7%, respectively, and its nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A+T biased (80.8%); all the 13 protein coding genes (PCGs) use standard initiation codons ATN, and all the PCGs use common stop codon (TAA), except for the ND4 and ND4L genes, which terminate with a single T; all tRNA genes form a typical clover-leaf secondary structure, except for the tRNASer (AGN), whose DHU arm forms a simple loop; there are twelve intergenic spacer regions ranging from 2 to 65 bp in size, and fifteen overlaps ranging from 1 to 8 bp in size in the mitogenome sequence. The neighbor joining and maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses based on the 13 PCG sequences showed that Sericins montela and Luehdorfia chinensis form a clade that is sister to the Parnassius bremeri, suggesting that they should be designated as a taxon of tribal level within the subfamily Parnassiinae in the family of Papilionidae.
    Numerical evaluation indices for differentiation dynamics of body-color of larvae of Agrius convolvuli (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)and its application
    WEN Li-Zhang, GONG Bi-Ya, XU Hao, YANG Zhong-Xia
    2012, 55(1):  101-115. 
    Abstract ( 2801 )   PDF (2285KB) ( 1195 )     
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    To study the quantitative impact laws of environmental or genetic factors on the insect body color, we must first solve the measurement problem of characteristics of the standardized values of the insect body color. If different researchers who determine the color do not use the uniform standards, no matter what method is used, such as genetic, molecular, physiological or ecological methods, etc., to study it, the results would be potentially misleading. In order to solve the problem that nearly a thousand kinds of insect body colors with continuous changes can not be described accurately and computed reasonably by the text and mathematics, this study adopted the color measurement technology of international standard-PFG (Pantone Formula Guide) color guide as the criterion of insect body color trait, and proposed some evaluation indicators on numerical description of insect body color, such as body-color element (BCE), body-color group (BCG), body-color position (BCP), highfrequency color-code index (HFI), variegated color index (VCI), etc., and some quantitative analytical methods. Using these indicators and methods, we studied the differentiation diversity, change process and numerical law of the body color on different body positions of different larval individuals of sweet potato hawk moth Agrius convolvuli (Linnaeus) at different developmental ages under similar environmental conditions. It was found that A. convolvuli larvae had a common main body color. The body color variation occurred mainly at different developmental ages in the individuals, accounting for 72.66% of the total variation. The difference of body color on different parts of an individual was also significant, accounting for 24.45% of the total variation, while the color difference among individuals at the same developmental age was very small, accounting for only 2.88% of the total variation. The results indicate that the process of color change occurred with the developmental stage of A. convolvuli larvae may be a process of appearance performance of an organism’s body from development to senescence determined by the genetic factors.
    Comparison of composition and content of fatty acids extracted from pupae of Dendrolimus superans (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) with combinations of different extraction solvents and methods
    HU Li-Yu, MA Ling, HU Li-Jun, JIANG Yuan, WANG Hui
    2012, 55(1):  116-121. 
    Abstract ( 3530 )   PDF (1162KB) ( 996 )     
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    The pupa of Dendrolimus superans has very high utilization value because of its large size. In order to definite the composition and content of fatty acids in pupa, and explore the optimal combination of extraction solvent and extraction method, pupa oil was extracted by 4 kinds of extraction methods (ultrasonic oscillation extraction, soxhlet extraction, and solvent extraction methods of hot soak and cold soak) in three kinds of extraction solvents (hexane, petroleum ether and ether) in this study. Capillary chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze the composition and relative content of fatty acids. The results showed that the extraction rate using hot soak was the highest (25.60%) in hexane among the four extraction methods. Ten kinds of fatty acids were tested with each method except ultrasonic oscillation extraction (9 kinds were tested). The extraction rate using soxhlet extraction was the highest (29.31%) in petroleum ether among four extraction methods. Amount of 10 kinds of fatty acids extracted was equal using four extraction methods. The extraction rate using cold soak was the highest (29.11%) in ether among four extraction methods. Number of different kinds of fatty acids extracted was in the following order from high to low: cold soak (13) > soxhlet extraction (12) > hot soak (11) > ultrasound oscillation extraction (9). Unsaturated fatty acids accounted for more than 63% of total fatty acids, and their contents were not markedly influenced by the extraction solvent and different extraction methods. So it is proposed that the optimal extraction solvent and method for fatty acids in D. superans pupae are petroleum ether and soxhlet extraction.
    Optimization of chemically defined diet for larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) based on uniform design and support vector regression
    ZHOU Shi-Hao, LI Jun, YAO Run-Xian, ZHANG Xing, YUAN Zhe-Ming
    2012, 55(1):  124-132. 
    Abstract ( 3279 )   PDF (1154KB) ( 1195 )     
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    In order to get a satisfying formula of the chemically artificial diet for larvae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, we used UD-SVR, an experimental design and analysis method reported by our preliminary studies, for formula optimization. Based on the benchmark diet of a chemically artificial diet for the larvae of the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana, the contents of 20 natural amino acids were optimized first, and the contents of 8 non-amino acid nutrients including sucrose were optimized then. After 4 rounds of optimization with total 97 schemes, an optimal formula of the chemically artificial diet for the cotton bollworm larvae was obtained. When the H. armigera larvae fed on this diet, their mean pupal weight and the pupation rate were 0.255 g and 97.9%, respectively; when the larvae fed on the benchmark diet, however, the above two indices were only 0.160 g and 10.4%, respectively. The results reconfirmed the effectiveness of UD-SVR in the complex prescription optimization. More importantly, the optimized chemically artificial diet for the cotton bollworm provides the basis for further research on the requirement and metabolism of nutrition compounds in the moth.
    Swimming behavior of the aquatic larva of Neoneuromus ignobilis (Megaloptera: Corydalidae: Corydalinae)(In English)
    CAO Cheng-Quan, LIU Zhi-Wei, CHEN Shen-Zhi, TONG Chao
    2012, 55(1):  133-138. 
    Abstract ( 4649 )   PDF (8422KB) ( 1342 )     
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    In order to explore the pattern and significance of swimming, through photos and videos we observed and recorded the swimming behavior of the aquatic larvae of Megaloptera in detail for the first time using the endemic Chinese species Neoneuromus ignobilis Navás, 1932 as the test insect, which were collected from the Dadu River and reared in nature-simulated environments. Four swimming postures are recognized and described herein in detail, i.e., vertical, parallel, back and side swimming, and these postures were used by the larvae disproportionately, with a frequency of 89.08%, 5.49%, 4.40% and 0.61%, respectively. The swimming larvae tend to pose their body into an S-shape, with various degree of sinuation. By changing the directions of the head and tail, they can easily rise up or sink and change swimming postures. The propulsion was generated by the wriggling of the body while the legs were mostly held close to the body. Larvae of different instars varied greatly in swimming ability, the 6th instar larvae being the best and most active swimmer compared to the 2nd and final instars. The larvae may also employ complex defense behaviors not often known from relatively ancient insect groups, like chemical defense as secretion from the end of abdomen.