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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 February 2002, Volume 45 Issue 1
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    Induction of the cytochrome P450 by 2-tridecanone in Helicoverpa armigera
    YU Cai-Hong, GAO Xi-Wu*, ZHENG Bing-Zong
    2002, 45(1):  1-7. 
    Abstract ( 2819 )   PDF (362KB) ( 1103 )     
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    The induction of the cytochrome P450 (cyt-P450) by 2-tridecanone in cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae was investigated. By mixing 2tridecanone at low dosages (0.005%~0.01%) for three generations, the content and difference spectra of cyt-P450 interacted with CO and ligands, including pyridine,n-butanol,aniline and cyclohexane, were investigated with cyt-P450 preparation from midgut and fat body of the sixth instar cotton bollworm. The maximal absorption of cyt-P450 interacted with CO was observed around 449 nm for midgut preparation and 450.70 nm for fat body preparation respectively based on 15 to 40 scans in the induction colony, and 449.22 nm for midgut preparation and 449.20 nm for fat body preparation respectively in the control colony. Besides an absorption peak around 449 nm, there were in turn three other absorption peaks around 414, 415, 419 nm in midgut cytochrome P450, thereafter the absorption disappeared, and there was a weak absorption at 420 nm at the thirty-first scan. In the absorption spectrum of cyt-P450 bound with n-butanol, two peaks and two troughs occurred for midgut preparation and one peak and one trough in fat body preparation. The maximal absorption peaks were at 380.10 nm, 415.02 nm for midgut preparation and 416.61 nm for fat body preparation, while the absorption troughs were at 395.02 nm, 423.24 nm for midgut preparation and 424.91 nm for fat body preparation. Characteristic type Ⅱ spectrum occurred with cyt-P450 bound with pyridine, for midgut preparation with a maximal absorption at 425.57 nm and a trough at 395.48 nm; for fat body preparation with a maximal absorption at 422.19 nm and a trough at 415.90 nm. Uncharacteristic type Ⅰ spectrum occurred with cyt-P450 bound with cyclohexane, for midgut preparation with maximal absorption peaks at 378.00 nm and 448.12 nm; for fat body preparation with the maximal absorption peaks at 380.00 nm and 434.04 nm. Type Ⅱ spectrum occurred with cyt-P450 bound with aniline, for midgut preparation with a maximal absorption at 443.30 nm and a trough at 402.30 nm; for fat body preparation with a maximal absorption at 428.92 nm and a trough at 401.00 nm.
    Activity identification and structure analysis of the analogs of prothoracicostatic peptide of the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    LIU Xin1, HUA Yue-Jin1*, CHEN Xi1, XU Bu-Jin1, TANAKA Yoshia-ki2
    2002, 45(1):  8-13. 
    Abstract ( 2792 )   PDF (347KB) ( 824 )     
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    Based on the amino acid sequence of prothoracicostatic peptide of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a group of analogs of Bom-PTSP were synthesized by chemical modifications, such as adding, removing, exchanging amino acid of the peptide. By using silkworms' prothoracic glands in vitro culture and 3H-ecdysteriodradioimmunoassay, the biological activities of those analogs were examined, and their activation features, chemical parameters, and the relationship between structure and function of those peptides were compared and analyzed. It was found the analog 899808 had the same biological function and the similar activity as Bom-PTSP. The analogs 899805 and 899809 partially stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis in a dose dependent manner, while 899803, 899804, 899806 and 899807 had both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on ecdysteroidogenesis, depending on concentration. A possible mechanism of biological activity of Bom-PTSP was discussed.
    Infection of Wolbachia in three planthopper species in China
    GAN Bo-Yi, ZHOU Wei-Guo, FENG Li-Bing, SHEN Da-Leng, LI Chang-Ben
    2002, 45(1):  14-17. 
    Abstract ( 3112 )   PDF (326KB) ( 1318 )     
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    The infection of the bacterial symbionts Wolbachia in 3 planthoppers was detected by PCR method. Laodelphax striatellus, Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera were found to be infected with Wolbachia. The gene wsp, encoding the outer membrane protein of the symbiotic bacteria, was cloned and sequenced. The RFLP analysis confirmed that those planthoppers were infected with the single Wolbachia strain. The cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by Wolbachia in Laodelphax striatellus and the distribution of Wolbachia in this insect from different regions were studied. A parasitic wasp, Haplogonatopus apicalis, which can parasitize the planthoppers, was found to be infected with the same Wolbachia. Wolbachia might transfer between different insect horizontally via this wasp.
    An immunocytochemical study on the distribution of dengue 2 virus in Aedes albopictus
    XIE Chao, ZHAO Tong-Yan*, YANG Fa-Qing, LU Bao-Lin
    2002, 45(1):  18-23. 
    Abstract ( 3000 )   PDF (1029KB) ( 1041 )     
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    Dissemination of dengue 2 virus in the female adult of Aedes albopictus was studied immunocytochemically to investigate the distribution of dengue 2 virus in A. Albopictus. The results showed that after the mosquito was infected with hightiter virus, viral antigen was detected in entire alimentary canal, especially in the midgut regions. The antigen was also detected in other tissues, including nervous and endocrine systems, such as salivary glands, brain, ganglions, etc. Sporadic viral antigen was also found in the ovarian tissues like ovarian follicle and calyces. It was inferred that once dengue 2 virus escaped from the midgut epithelium, it could quickly spread to other tissues. The most possible sequence of the virus spreading among the infected tissues was as follows: midgut, forgut, salivary glands, brain and suboesophageal ganglions, thoracic ganglions, hindgut, compound eyes and Johnston's organ.
    Aggregate property of HaNPV polyhedrin and the serological relationship among inclusion body proteins
    SUN Guo-Xun, QIN Qi-Lian, CAI Xiu-Yu, DING Cui*
    2002, 45(1):  24-29. 
    Abstract ( 2777 )   PDF (862KB) ( 1189 )     
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    Analysis of HaNPV polyhedrin purified with gel filtration chromatography, by SDS-PAGE, immunodiffusion and immunoelectron microscopy suggested that the polyhedrin exist in the form of aggregates. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that the polyhedrin was more closer in serology to other two polyhedrins from ArNPV and AsNPV than two granulins from AsGV and PsGV, respectively.
    Identification of sex pheromone of the moth, Tyta luctuosa
    CAO Wan-Hong, HE Hong-Ju
    2002, 45(1):  30-34. 
    Abstract ( 2704 )   PDF (313KB) ( 1048 )     
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    The major sex pheromone components of Tyta luctuosa, a potential biological control agent for field bindweed, were extracted, identified, and tested with male moths in a wind tunnel. Two compounds, (Z)-9-tetradecenal and (Z)-11-hexadecenal, were identified as the major female sex pheromone components from the pheromone gland extracts and airborne emissions from the calling females. Although the total amount of the two compounds in the extracts varied (22~167 ng, mean 75±56 ng) among individuals, the ratio of (Z)-9-tetradecenal to (Z)-11-hexadecenal was relatively constant at 0.3±0.15. The emission rate and the ratio also varied among individuals. Calling females released an average of 94 ng of (Z)-9-tetradecenal and 45 ng of (Z)-11-hexadecenal per hour with a mean ratio of 2.2. in wind tunnel tests, 48% of males completed upwind flight and touched the stimulus source in response to the synthetic pheromone blend of 0.4 μg of (Z)-9-tetradecenal and 2 μg of (Z)-11-hexadecenal, compared with 62% and 44% in response to the calling females and pheromone gland extracts, respectively.
    A comparative study on the surface ultrastructure of ommatidium in butterflies
    CHEN Wei-Zhi1, YANG Si-Xian1, LI Su-Mei2, YANG Li-Juan1
    2002, 45(1):  35-40. 
    Abstract ( 3428 )   PDF (1452KB) ( 1158 )     
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    The ommatidial surface ultrastructure of ommateum of 6 butterfly species were observed with scanning electronic microscope. The ommatidial surface was revealed to be covered evenly with small round convex particles. A special concavo-convex structure formed by striae was situated in the middle of ommatidium. These structures were different obviously and characteristic among the butterfly families.
    Individual differences in gustatory electrophysiological responses of the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    CUI Wei-Zheng1,MU Zhi-Mei1,WANG Yan-Wen1,XU Jun-Liang2
    2002, 45(1):  41-46. 
    Abstract ( 3104 )   PDF (353KB) ( 1087 )     
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    In order to reveal the physiological causes of allometric development of the silkworm, Bombyx mori reared with artificial diet, individuals with different acceptance of the artificial diet were selected from a variety. Their physiological responses of the gustatory organ on the maxillary tubercle to four representative components (sucrose, inositol, soybean extract, citric acid)were measured electrophysiologically. The results showed that there were individual differences in the responses of sensillum styloconicum Ss-I to the feeding stimulants (sucrose etc.) and sensillum styloconicum Ss-Ⅱ to the feeding deterrent (soybean extract etc.). At the critical concentration, the discharge frequencies of electric pulse in low feeding individuals were significantly higher than that in high feeding individuals. It showed that the gustation of low feeding silkworms was more sensitive than the high feeding ones.
    Effects of azadirachtin against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella
    HOU You-Ming1,PANG Xiong-Fei2,LIANG Guang-Wen2
    2002, 45(1):  47-52. 
    Abstract ( 2932 )   PDF (317KB) ( 1137 )     
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    Effects of azadirachtin dosages on population dynamics of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, were investigated in both laboratory and field. The results showed that azadirachtin strongly deterred the adult from laying eggs and significantly inhibited larval feeding on the plant with it. When 0.005 mL/L of azadirachtin was applied, 78.3% of the adults of DBM was kept away from the host plant and larval antifeedant ranged from 62.9% to 71.8%. Total food intake by DBM larva decreased to 59.0% of that in the control. The index of population trend of DBM decreased to 2.4 from 22.0 in the control. The interference index of population control was 0.1079. Based on the space-state equation of cybernetics, models of DBM population dynamics were set up, which indicated the deterrent activity of azadirachtin to the adult egg-laying played a key role in population control.
    Toxicokinetic analysis of joint action of several insecticide-combinations on head esterases
    LIU Xian-Jin, YU Xiang-Yang,GAO Yuan, DONG Jian
    2002, 45(1):  53-57. 
    Abstract ( 2950 )   PDF (245KB) ( 1161 )     
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    Inhibition and toxicokinetic action of several insecticide-combinations on the esterases from the heads of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner) were assayed. Residue activity of the esterases assayed in vitro showed that the I50 values affording 50% inhibition of monocrotophos, trichlorfon and carbofuran were 2.4443×10-6, 3.4562×10-7 and 2.6302×10-5(mol/L) respectively. Graphic analysis on the toxicokinetic mode of action on the enzyme of each insecticide indicated that monocrotophos and carbofuran inhibited the enzyme competitively, while trichlorfon did the same non-competitively. Joint treatment of two insecticides with non-competitive inhibition and competitive inhibition resulted in a potentiated inhibition on the enzyme, and I50 values of monocrotophostrichlorfon and trichlorfon-carbofuran were 1.0846×10-6 and 5.1786×10-6 (mol/L) respectively. On the other hand, joint treatment of two insecticides with competitive inhibition led to a competitive inhibition, but no potentiated joint action. These results suggested that the toxicokinetic interactions between the insecticides and the easterases play an important role in the joint action of the insecticide-combinations on the enzyme.
    Studies on resistance selection by abamectin and fenpropathrin and activity change of detoxicant enzymes in Panonychus citri
    MENG He-Sheng, WANG Kai-Yun, JIANG Xing-Yin, YI Mei-Qin
    2002, 45(1):  58-62. 
    Abstract ( 2547 )   PDF (267KB) ( 1042 )     
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    Studies on resistance selection by abamectin and fenpropathrin and activity change of detoxicant enzymes of Panonychus citri(McGregor)were carried out in laboratory. P. citri was separately treated with abamectin and fenpropathrin imitating field chemicals selection pressure in order to breed its resistance. The results showed that the resistance has respectively reached 7.30-fold to abamectin and 17.11-fold to fenpropathrin after 12 times selection. The resistance mechanism was evaluated by activity measurement of enzymic inhibitors and detoxicant enzymes. It was concluded that the rise of resistance to abamectin was mainly associated with the increasing activities of acetylcholinesterase and mixedfunction oxidases. The resistance to fenpropathrin was attributed to carboxylesterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathione transferase.
    Influence of hostplant volatile components on oviposition behavior and sex pheromone attractiveness to Helicoverpa armigera
    FANG Yu-Ling, ZHANG Zhong-Ning*
    2002, 45(1):  63-67. 
    Abstract ( 2955 )   PDF (321KB) ( 1221 )     
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    The EAG responses of the female and male adults of Helicoverpa armigera to a range of host plant volatile components were examined. The results showed that the antennae of both male and female moths could response to a wide variety of host plant volatile components. There were no significantly different responses between the female and male moth antennae. The oviposition tests showed that the presence of some host plant volatile components greatly increased the attractiveness for oviposition. The field tests showed the attractiveness of sex pheromone plus host plant volatile component was significantly higher than that of sex pheromone alone.
    Trajectory analysis on the summer immigrant brown planthoppers(Nilaparvata lugens)in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River captured by aerial net
    HUA Hong-Xia1, DENG Wang-Xi1, LI Ru-Hai2
    2002, 45(1):  68-74. 
    Abstract ( 2366 )   PDF (353KB) ( 1166 )     
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    The possible sources and immigrant pathways of the brown planthopper (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens(Stal), in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River were investigated by the means of trajectory analysis. The BPHs were captured by aerial nets installed on the plane, which flew at the height of 1 500 meters above the sea level in July 1977, 1978 and 1979. A modified backward trajectory model based on the capturing time, duration time and the synoptic weather data at 850 hPa isobaric level was used to calculate the backward trajectories. The results showed: 1. In the area of northeastern Hunan and southeastern Hubei Province, the immigrant BPHs came from the area between middle Guangxi and middle Hunan Province (24°~28°N,109°~114°E),and there were two immigrant pathways of BPHs:①Liuzhou→Guilin→Hengyang→this area; ②Liuzhou→Guilin→Shaoyang→this area. 2. In the area of eastern Hubei and northern Jiangxi Province, the immigrant BPHs came from the area between middle Guangxi and western Jiangxi Province (24°~29°N,110°~115°E), and there was one immigrant pathway of BPHs: Mengshan→Shuxian→Yichun→this area. 3.In the area of eastern and middle Hunan Province: the immigrant BPHs came from the area between southern Guangxi and southern Hunan Province (23°~27°N, 109°~113°E),and there was one immigrant pathway of BPHs: Nanning→Liuzhou→Guilin→this area.
    Effects of Pandora delphacis on the fecundity and innate capacity for increase of Myzus persicae at different temperatures and relative humidities
    XU Jun-Huan, FENG Ming-Guang*, YU Wei**
    2002, 45(1):  75-79. 
    Abstract ( 3024 )   PDF (289KB) ( 1051 )     
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    The effects of Pandora delphacis infection on the net reproduction rate (R0) and innate capacity for increase (rm) of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae were investigated. Seven day old nymphs inoculated with the fungal conidia at a dosage higher than LD50 were maintained on the Chinese cabbage, Brassica olerracea, at temperatures of 10~30℃ and relative humidity (RH) of 74%~100%. The results indicated that number of nymphs produced by the treated aphids was significantly less than those produced in control, especially at higher temperatures (20~30℃) and RHs (95%~100%). Their rm differed greatly among the temperatures tested, showing a parabolic curve with the peak at 25℃. No significant effect of RH on their rm was detected. The inoculated aphids at 15~25℃ had an innate capacity for increase significantly smaller than those in control. These results suggested that P. delphacis be a potential microbial agent against the aphid.
    Influence of temperature and humidity on the flight capacity of Sitobion avenae
    CHENG Deng-Fa, TIAN Zhe, LI Hong-Mei, SUN Jing-Rui, CHEN Ju-Lian
    2002, 45(1):  80-85. 
    Abstract ( 3205 )   PDF (500KB) ( 1384 )     
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    The grain aphid Sitobion avenae is migratory and seriously infests wheat in China. In this study, flight performances of winged adults of the grain aphid were measured with a 32 channel, computer monitored flight mill system at ten temperatures from 8℃ to 30℃ and three relative humidities (40%, 60%, 80%). The results showed that 12℃~22℃ and 60%~80% RH are suitable for their flight. It was difficult for the aphid to take off at 8℃ and the flight time was shortened significantly. When the humidity increased, the flight time prolonged and the flight distance increased. The flight speed was greater at a RH range of about 60% RH. The maximum flight duration, distance and speed of single aphid were 22.51 h, 14.63 km and 2.05 km/h respectively.
    Experimental population life tables of Microterys ericeri at different temperatures
    JIAO Yi, ZHAO Ping
    2002, 45(1):  86-90. 
    Abstract ( 2712 )   PDF (247KB) ( 1188 )     
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    Development, survivorship and fecundity of the experimental populations of Microterys ericeri Ishii were observed at 15℃, 18℃, 21℃, 24℃, 27℃ and 30℃ respectively and their life tables at these temperatures were presented. The thermal threshold and thermal sum for development of M. ericeri were estimated at 12.1℃ and 499.4 day-degrees respectively. The shortest durations were recorded at 27℃ as follows: egg, 3.0 d; the 1st-2nd instar larva, 5.4 d; the 3rd instar larva, 3.2 d; the 4th instar larva, 3.5 d; the 5th instar larva, 4.1 d; pupa, 8.3 d; and the whole generation, 27.5 d. The highest survival rates of the 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae and pupae occurred at 24℃ while the maximal fecundity was observed at 27℃. The generation survival rates were 8.5%, 25.2%, 50.3%, 68.2%, 49.8% and 38.1% at 15℃, 18℃, 21℃, 24℃, 27℃ and 30℃ respectively. The maximums of the generation survival rate, population trend index, net reproduction rate and innate capacity of natural increase occurred at 24℃. The parasitic wasp failed to complete its life cycle at 15℃.
    Mechanism of rice varietal resistance differences to the yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas
    FANG Ji-Chao1, GUO Hui-Fang1, CHENG Xia-Nian2, DU Zheng-Wen1
    2002, 45(1):  91-95. 
    Abstract ( 2938 )   PDF (272KB) ( 1077 )     
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    The mechanism of rice varietal resistance to the yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas, was investigated and analyzed. There were significant differences among development rates and weight gain when YSB neonates fed on rice varieties with different resistant levels. The varieties Shan-you 63 (hybrid indica), Zhendao No. 2 and 92.109 (japonica) evidently inhibited the growth of YSB in comparison with other varieties tested. It was found that YSB larval performance was obviously correlated with the interval vascular bundles and the width of sheath ridge in the outer leaf sheath on primary stem of the rice tested rather than the contents of essential amino acids and reductive carbohydrate in these rice plants.
    An investigation on dynamics of eggparasitoid community on planthopper in rice area in South China
    MAO Run-Qian1, ZHANG Wen-Qing2, ZHANG Gu-Ren2, GU De-Xiang2
    2002, 45(1):  96-101. 
    Abstract ( 3046 )   PDF (326KB) ( 1051 )     
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    Reestablishment and maintenance of the egg parasitoid community on rice planthopper were monitored in Dasha Town and Dinghu District, Guangdong Province in 1996. During the first rice season, Anagrus nilaparvatae and A. paranilaparvatae appeared in IPM paddy in Dasha and in non-IPM paddy in Dinghu on the 9th and 13th day after transplantation of seedlings respectively. The reestablishment finished on the 21st day in both the two types of rice areas. The rate of reestablishment was 0.28 species and 0.21 species per day in IPM and non-IPM area respectively. During the second rice season, A. nilaparvatae and A. paranilaparvatae were found on the day of transplantation and the community reestablishment ended on the 21st day in both the rice areas. The rate of reestablishment was 0.12 specie and 0.04 species per day in IPM and non-IMP area respectively. During most of rice growing period, the parasitoid community was steadier in IPM area than in non-IPM area. The reestablishment and maintenance was influenced by temperature, species and number of the parasitoids in species pools, the distance from species pools, the insect pest species and the regimes of pest control.
    A study on Eulachnus del Guercio from China, with description of one new species
    QIAO Ge-Xia, ZHANG Guang-Xue*, CAO Yan
    2002, 45(1):  102-108. 
    Abstract ( 2740 )   PDF (354KB) ( 1087 )     
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    The materials of Eulachnus del Guercio from China are systematically studied. There are twelve species in China, including one new species, E. similialticola Zhang,sp.nov. and two new record species, E. alticola Borner and E. tuberculostemmatus (Theobald ). Host plants, geographical distribution, morphological figures and key to the Chinese species of this genus are provided.
    A study on the genus Roxita Bleszynski from China,with descriptions of two new species(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, Crambinae)
    CHEN Tie-Mei, SUNG Shi-Mei, YUAN De-Cheng*
    2002, 45(1):  109-114. 
    Abstract ( 2997 )   PDF (291KB) ( 1167 )     
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    The genus Roxita Bleszynski in China was reviewed, with six species recorded, including two new species: R. fujianella sp. Nov.from Fujian, related to R. Eurydyce Bleszynski, and R. yunnanella sp. Nov. from Yunnan, related to R. bipunctella (Wileman & South). For all species in China, descriptions of the adult and illustrations of genitalia were given. Key to all species of Roxita in the world was provided.
    A systematic study on the ant subfamily Leptanillinae of China (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)
    XU Zheng-Hui
    2002, 45(1):  115-120. 
    Abstract ( 2668 )   PDF (272KB) ( 1247 )     
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    Two genera of the ant subfamily Leptanillinae are recorded in China. Three species including a new species of the genus Leptanilla Emery are reported: L. hunanensis Tang, Li et Chen from Hunan Province, L. taiwanensis Ogata, Terayama et Masuko from Taiwan Province, L. yuananensis sp. Nov. from Yunnan Province. Protanilla Taylor is newly recorded in China, of which 2 new species are described from Yunnan Province, I e. P. concolor sp. Nov. and P. bicolor sp. Nov. Keys to the two genera of Leptanillinae and their species in China based on worker caste are provided.
    Unwelcome Guests: Exotic Forest Pests
    Kerry O.BRITTON1, SUN Jiang-Hua2
    2002, 45(1):  121-131. 
    Abstract ( 3062 )   PDF (809KB) ( 1445 )     
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    Exotic forest pests cost China and the United States billions of dollars each year. Current regulatory systems worldwide are overwhelmed with the increasing volume of international trade. Trade in nursery stock, wood products, pallets and dunnage have proven the most common means of transport for exotic forest pests. Despite our best efforts, pests such as chestnut blight, gypsy moth, Dutch elm disease, and Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) have caused major changes in the structure and function of American forests, as well as urban landscapes. China's natural resources are likewise under attack, and many of the pests come from the United States, such as the pinewood nematode and the red turpentine beetle. ALB is acting like an exotic pest in China, attacking over 100 host species, and killing many of the trees planted in the Three-North Belt project. The biological basis of the invasiveness of exotic pests, and what can be done about them, are discussed.
    Progress in the studies of antenna odorant binding proteins of insects
    WANG Gui-Rong, GUO Yu-Yuan, WU Kong-Ming*
    2002, 45(1):  131-137. 
    Abstract ( 3066 )   PDF (461KB) ( 1446 )     
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    Odorant-binding proteins of insects are soluble acidic proteins,very concentrated in the lymph of chemosensory sensilla of insect antennae and belonging to four major classes (PBP,general OBP1,general OBP2 and OBP like).Odorant-0binding proteins play an important role in insect for perceiving exoteric odorant and are widely and deeply studied in the recent decade.Research methods, biochemical characteristics, molecular structure and physiological role of odorant-binding proteins are reviewed in details in this paper.
    Progress in the studies on Helicoverpa spp. Resistance to transgenic Bt cotton and its management strategy
    TAN Sheng-Jiang, CHEN Xiao-Feng, LI Dian-Mo*
    2002, 45(1):  138-144. 
    Abstract ( 2798 )   PDF (480KB) ( 1201 )     
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    Advance in the research on monitoring and management strategies of resistance of Helicoverpa spp. To the transgenetic Bt cotton was reviewed. Mechanism and pattern of Bacillus thuringiensis toxicity to pests were included and potential ecological risks of commercially planted Bt cotton, of which resistance of insect pests to Bt cotton may be the major one, were analyzed. Based on the information available it seems that modification of the site, where the Bt toxin and the specific receptor in the infected insect was bound, may be the most significant mechanism of the resistance occurrence in the Lepidoptera insect. The refuge tactic, considered as one of the effective strategies for resistance management, has been adopted in Australia and US. Since the transgenic cotton has been planted in China, it is necessary to develop effective strategies to manage the resistance before the cotton bollworm develops resistance in the field.
    ffects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium via leaf on host selection by Liriomyza sativae
    DAI Xiao-Hua, YOU Min-Sheng, FU Li-Jun
    2002, 45(1):  145-147. 
    Abstract ( 2585 )   PDF (134KB) ( 1231 )     
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    The effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium via leaf on host-selection by Liriomyza sativae were studied with their application significances discussed.
    Weakening the cold-hardiness of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum with ice-nucleating active fungus
    FENG Yu-Xiang, HE Wei-Xun
    2002, 45(1):  148-151. 
    Abstract ( 3367 )   PDF (284KB) ( 1207 )     
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    The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is freeze-intolerant.They survives winter by lowering their supercooling point (SCP). It is well known that ice-nucleating active (INA) bacteria can significantly elevate SCP of certain species of insects, thereby freeze occurs at higher temperature. Our experiments proved that ice-nucleating active fungus, Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, also significantly elevated SCP of the red flour beetle. In the control group, SCP of the adults averaged -14.9℃. The insects sprayed with INA fungus at a concentration of 10 g/L, had a mean SCP of -4.8℃. The SCP remained high in last 7 days after treatment with concentration of 0.1 g/L.The results suggested that the INA fungus could be used as a freeze-inducing insecticide for controlling the freeze-intolerant insect pests in winter.