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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 November 2001, Volume 44 Issue 4
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Isolation and purification of diapause-associated proteins from hemolymph in Ostrinia furnacalis
    MAO Wen-fu1, CAO Mei-xun2
    2001, 44(4):  389-394. 
    Abstract ( 2574 )   PDF (457KB) ( 1002 )     
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    By 6% PAGE, it was found that there were two kinds of diapause-associated proteins (DAP)(pI 5.3,4.7) in the hemolymph of diapausing larvae from Henan population and one kind of DAP(pI 4.7) in the hemolymph of diapausing larvae from Shanghai population of Ostrinia furnacalis. The DAPs of O. furnacalis from Henan population were found only in the hemolymph of diapausing larvae. Although the DAP of O. furnacalis from Shanghai population was found in the hemolymphs of both non-diapausing and diapausing larvae, it had higher titer in diapausing larvae. By means of 30%~50% acetone fractionation,Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography and MONOQ RH 5/5 FPLC, the high pure DAP (≥98%) from the hemolymph of larvae from Shanghai population was isolated.
    The feeding behavior and the acquisition of CMV by the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii
    ZHANG Peng-fei,CHEN Jian-qun, ZHANG Xian, WANG Bin, JIANG Qun-feng
    2001, 44(4):  395-401. 
    Abstract ( 3262 )   PDF (350KB) ( 1021 )     
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    The simultaneous display technique of electrical penetration graph (EPG) was used to study the effects of the wave potential drop(pd) and its sub-phases in the acquisition of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii from the infected melon plants. The presence of the intracellular punctures indicated by the wave pd in EPG records is the prerequisite of the acquisition of CMV by aphids (1 pd vs 0 pd: 47.1% vs 0%, P<0.001). The transmission efficiency was positively correlated with the number of pd (4 pd vs 1 pd: 80% vs 47.1%, P=0.023; 5pd vs 1pd: 90.5% vs 47.1%, P=0.001). The analysis of subphase showed that acquisition occurred primarily during the sub-phase Ⅱ-3 of intracellular punctures. This result supports the 'ingestion hypothesis' for nonpersistent virus acquisition.The feeding behavior and the acquisition of CMV by the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii.
    The mariner transposable element of Sogatella furcifera and Laodelphax striatellus
    HUANG Li-hua, DU Jian-guang, CHENG Xia-nian, HONG Xiao-yue
    2001, 44(4):  402-407. 
    Abstract ( 4553 )   PDF (314KB) ( 1014 )     
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    About 500 bp DNA fragment is amplified by PCR with the degenerated primers designed according to the mariner sequence of Drosophila mauritiana, the genomic DNA of either Sogatella furcifera or Laodelphax striatellus as the template. Sequence analysis shows that the fragment similarity of both the DNA to that of D. mauritiana is 71.3%, and the similarity of the amino acid is 69.5% and 72% respectively. This indicates that the mariner element may exist in S. furcifera and L. striatellus.
    Ultra-morphology and infrared absorption spectra of the waxes secreted by a scale insect, Eulecanium gigantea (Homoptera: Coccidae)
    XIE Ying-ping, ZHENG Le-yi
    2001, 44(4):  408-415. 
    Abstract ( 3466 )   PDF (1458KB) ( 1056 )     
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    he ultra-morphology and chemical composition of the waxes secreted by the scale insect, Eulecanium gigantea, in different development stages were studied with scanning electron microscope and infrared spectra techniques. The results showed that waxes secreted by the young nymph were wet. They first coagulated into many granular structures in different sizes, then linked into greater pieces and plates, finally heaped up into a turtle-shell-form wax covering the dorsal surface of the scale insect. Each plate of the wax covering was corresponding in position with the projecting integument area, on which the wax pores are densely distributed. In the young stage, the wax coverings possessed the equal texture for both sexes. However, the adult female secreted many long, coil and hollow wax threads. The infrared absorption spectra of waxes indicated that for the female adult stage, the wax secretions were of the same chemical functional groups and compositions, no matter whether they were secreted from dorsal or ventral surface. In spite of the basic similarity in chemical compositions of the waxes secreted by the female and the male, some significant differences were found. In the male's infrared spectra there were two peaks around the site of vibration frequency 1 736.3 cm-1, but only one peak at the same site for the female's. Furthermore, in the male's spectra, there were 3 peaks in the vibration frequencies 1 242.0 cm-1~1 106.6 cm-1 for the functional group C—O absorbing vibration. However, in the same frequencies, there was a series of sawtoothform peaks showing long carbon chain —C—C—C— absorbing vibration in the female's spectra. Based on the infrared spectra, it was suggested that the scale insect's waxes be composed most by longchain hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids and some compounds with aromatic rings.
    Microsatellite DNA polymorphism in different forms of the cotton aphid
    GONG Peng1, ZHANG Xiao-xi1, YANG Xiao-wen2, CHEN Xiaofeng2
    2001, 44(4):  416-421. 
    Abstract ( 2812 )   PDF (385KB) ( 1142 )     
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    The PCR technique with microsatellite primers was used to analyze the DNA polymorphism in different forms (mother of mating forms, mating female, male, fundatrix, apterous and alate virginoparae ) of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. The results showed that: 1. There existed a obvious genetic differentiation between sexual forms and parthenogenetic forms of the cotton aphid;2. Mother of mating forms had almost the same genetic relation to the mating female and male, suggesting that the mother of mating female also be the mother of male;3. Compared with virginoparae, the genetic relationship between fundatrix and the first generation of virginoparae (apterous) produced by fundatrix (apterous) was much close.
    Acute isolation and culture of nerve cell from the cotton bollworm and the patch\|clamp study on the voltage-gated ion channels in the cultured neurons
    HE Bing-jun1, LIU An-xi1, CHEN Jia-tong2, SUN Jin-sheng1, RUI Chang-hui3, MENG Xiang-qing3
    2001, 44(4):  422-427. 
    Abstract ( 2526 )   PDF (362KB) ( 1072 )     
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    The dissociation and culture of cells isolated from the ventral nerve cord of the larva of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera are described. The propterties of the voltage-gated ion channels of the cultured neurons were studied with patchclamp technique in the wholecell configuration. Neurons survived and grew fast in either TC-100, Leibovitz's L-15 or Grace medium supplemented with glutathione, glutamine, glucose and 10% foetal calf serum. The medium made up of equal parts of TC-100 and Leibovitz's L-15 enabled better adherence, survival and growth. Most neurons showed neurite growth exhibiting unipolar, bipolar or multipolar. Neural cell bodies readily formed seals with patch pipettes, allowing stable, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Depolarization of the cell under voltage-clamp resulted in TTX-sensitive sodium currents, high-voltage activated calcium currents and two types of outward potassium currents. The potassium currents could be decreased by TEA-Cl and 4-AP.
    Sexual behavior of Holcocerus insularis and circadian rhythm of its sex pheromone production and release
    ZHANG Jin-tong, MENG Xian-zuo
    2001, 44(4):  428-432. 
    Abstract ( 3051 )   PDF (381KB) ( 926 )     
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    The sexual behavior and the circadian rhythms of sex pheromone production and release in Holcocerus insularias were investigated in both laboratory and the field. Extraction of the sex pheromone from its glands and its collection from air, electroantennogram of the male in response to the sex pheromone and trap of moths with it in the field were performed. The results indicated that most of the moths became sexually mature after one day of emergence. Their nuptial flight and mating took place from 1:00 to 4:00 and the longest mating lasted for 45 minutes. The ratio of the females to the males was 1∶0.89. The maximum of the sex pheromone in glands appeared about 1:00 on the second day after emergence, and the peak of its release occurred about 2:30.The female mated 1~3 times, while most of the males did only one time during their life spans.
    Delayed effects of mosquitolarvicidal Bacillus sphaericus on Culex quinquefasciatus
    PEI Guo-feng1, YUAN Zhi-ming1, 2, CAI Quan-xin1, ZHANG Yong-mei1, PANG Yi2
    2001, 44(4):  433-438. 
    Abstract ( 3893 )   PDF (282KB) ( 1088 )     
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    The toxicity and the delayed effects of Bacillus sphaericus C3-41 to Culex quinquefasciatus larvae has been studied.The bioassay results indicated that the C3-41 acetone powder has a considerable toxicity against target under the laboratory condition, with a fifty percent lethal concentration (LC50) of 6.92±0.22 μg/L against 3rd~4th instar larvae at 48 h. The significant continued mortalities and abnormal development were observed in larval, pupal and emergence stages after the initial 48 h exposure of larvae were terminated, and the cumulative preadult corrected mortality of LC30, LC50, LC70, LC90, LC98 dosage treatment were 84%, 91%, 95%, 98% and 100% respectively. In comparison, only 5% cumulative preadult corrected mortality was observed in control. Moreover, the delayed pupation, abnormal emergence and delayed oviposition were also noticed in surviving treated individuals. These long-term effects of C3-41 to mosquito larvae may be resulted from the damage of the midgut epithelium caused by binary toxins in initial treatment and would be contributed a great deal to the efficacy of B. sphaericus in field application for mosquito control.
    Synthesis of N-methyl substituted phenyl carbamatesand their activities to housefly
    YAN Bing-li1, ZENG Yi-liang1, REN Lian-kui1, WANG Tong-shun2, XIE Li-hua3
    2001, 44(4):  439-446. 
    Abstract ( 3332 )   PDF (221KB) ( 850 )     
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    Fifty-two N-methyl substituted phenyl carbamates had been synthesized by reaction of methyl aminocarbonyl chloride (NCC) with appropriate phenols in water-phase. Biological experiments on housefly Musca domestica showed that among the monoalkyl substituted phenyl carbamates, the toxicity of meta-alkyl derivative was higher than those of the ortho- and para-alkyl derivatives, and the toxicity of N-methyl-3-isopropyl phenyl carbamate was the highest with the LD50 of 0.4511 μg/housefly. For monohalide derivatives, the toxicity of ortho-chloro was higher than those of meta- and para-chloro derivatives. The methylthio and ethylthio substituted derivatives showed high toxicity. The toxicities of the meta-alkyl substituted phenyl carbamates were increased in some degree with the enhancement of the molecular weight of those compounds in the order isopropyl> ethyl>methyl>H on the phenyl ring.
    Relationship between mixedfunction oxidases and the resistanceto fenvalerate in Helicoverpa armigera
    QIU Li-hong, ZHANG Wen-ji
    2001, 44(4):  447-453. 
    Abstract ( 2995 )   PDF (311KB) ( 846 )     
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    Activities of methoxyresorufin O-demethylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, ethoxycoumrin O-deethylase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and aldrin epoxidase were studied in three tissues of a fenvalerate-resistant strain and a susceptible strain of Helicoverpa armigera. Compared with the susceptible strain, activities of the five monooxygenases in the resistant strain increased 11.29-, 4.10-, 2.66-, 6.30-, 2.34-folds respectively in midgut microsomes, 1.46-, 6.80-, 1.36-, 4.05-, 1.48-folds respectively in fat body microsomes and 12.32-, 2.2-, 1.33-, 0.80-, 0.51-folds respectively in integument microsomes. The ability to oxidize the five substrates was different for the three tissues in both strains. Generally, midgut or fatbody microsomes showed the highest monooxygenase activity.
    Synergism of Bacillus thuringiensis pretreatment to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in Plutella xylostella
    WU Gang1, YOU Min-sheng1, ZHAO Shi-xi1, JIANG Shu-ren2
    2001, 44(4):  454-461. 
    Abstract ( 3076 )   PDF (362KB) ( 1080 )     
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    The synergism of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) pretreatment to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in the larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella was studied. In 24 hours after pretreatment with LC5 of Bt, the synergisms to methamidophos, isocarbophos and carbofuran were 6.74, 8.83 and 8.50 folds as high as that without Bt pretreatment in the R strain,while it was 2.96, 1.69 and 3.88 folds as high as that without Bt pretreatment in the S strain respectively. The Km and Vmax of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in R strain without Bt pretreatment were 1.86 and 13.56 folds respectively as high as that with Bt treatment.The bimolecular rate constants (KI) of AChE to methanidophos, isocarbophos, carbofuran, dichlorpos, methomyl and isofenphos methyl in R strain with Bt pretreatment were about 1.80~2.66 folds as high as that without Bt pretreatment.There was no obvious change of the Km and KI of carboxylesterase(CarE), but a strong inhibition of CarE activity after using Bt pretreatment in R strain. The Vmax of CarE without Bt preteratment was 2.02 folds as high as that with Bt pretreatment. In addition, the strong inhibition was found both in the activity of GSTs and the content of glutathion (GSH) in R strain with Bt pretreatment.The activity of GSTs and the amount of GSH without Bt pretreatment was 1.73 and 1.66 folds respectively as high as that with Bt preteratment. There was no great change in three respects: Km, Vmax and KI of AChE, Km and KI of CarE and the content of GSH after Bt pretreatment in S strain. However, obvious inhibition could be found on the activity of CarE and GSTs. The CarE and GSTs without Bt pretreatment were 1.54 and 1.64 folds as high as that with Bt pretreatment respectively in S strain. The results suggested that synergism of Bt pretreatment to Ops and carbamates in resistant DBM might be greatly related to inhibitions of AChE, CarE, GSTs and GSH, as well as the increment of AChE sensitivity.
    Risk assessment and prediction of resistance to phoxim in Helicoverpa armigera
    LIN Xiang-wen, SHEN Jin-liang
    2001, 44(4):  462-468. 
    Abstract ( 2609 )   PDF (310KB) ( 1025 )     
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    Continuously selected with phoxim for 12 generations at the average survival percentage of 37.6%, the strain of Helicoverpa armigera, collected from Dongtai County, Jiangsu Province, had a 4.9-fold increase in resistance to phoxim. Based on the method described by Tabashnik(1992), the realized heritability (h2) of resistance to phoxim in H.armigera was estimated to be 0.0865. The rate of resistance development in the cotton bollworm was predicted based on the estimation of the realized heritability (h2). Resistance risk assessment, factors affecting the resistance development and resistance management were discussed.
    Effects of feeding on different host plants on resistance to insecticides in the progeny of the cotton aphid
    WANG Kai-yun, JIANG Xing-yin, YI Mei-qin, LU Bao-qian
    2001, 44(4):  469-475. 
    Abstract ( 2422 )   PDF (297KB) ( 909 )     
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    The susceptible strain and the resistant strains R-fenvalerate and R-imidacloprid of the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) were reared with three different host plants: cotton, cucumber and pomegranate. The toxicity of five insecticides to the decendants of the cotton aphid and the relevant enzymic activity were measured. The results showed that the resistance of the progeny of R-fenvalerate strain feeding on cotton was 67.4-folds higher than that feeding on cucumber for fenvalerate, and 0.5~4.6 folds for other four insecticides. When feeding on pomegranate this strain showed moderate resistance. The R-imidacloprid strain feeding on the three host plants showed the same tendency in resistance to the five insecticides as the R-fenvalerate strain. The sensitivity of the susceptible strain feeding on cucumber to the tested insecticides was higher than that feeding on cotton. AChE and CarE activities of different strains feeding on cotton were higher than feeding on cucumber (AChE:2.4~2.8 times;CarE:1.8~2.4 times). The results demonstrated that feeding on different host plants might cause the change in sensitivity to insecticides in the resistant and susceptible strains of the cotton aphid.  One of the major factor causing the resistance changes was the alteration in AChE and CarE activities.
    Construction of a linkage map in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, based on SADF and RAPD markers
    HE Ning-jia, LU Cheng, LI Bin, ZHOU Ze-yang, XIANG Zhong-huai
    2001, 44(4):  476-482. 
    Abstract ( 2670 )   PDF (491KB) ( 1014 )     
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    544 DNA markers which were tested for the expected 3∶1 segregation by the chi-square test for 69 F2 individuals were detected with 40 SADF synthetic primers and 137 RAPD primers. Using these DNA markers the linkage analysis was performed by Mapmaker/Exp (Version 3.0b). The following parameters were preset: two-point analysis (LOD 3.0, maximum recombination value 0.3); three-point and multipoint analysis (LOD 3.0, maximum recombination value no more than 0.2). Linked markers were also identified at the “group” command with LOD score 4 and maximum recombination value 0.2. The functions of Mapmaker were employed to assess the order of the markers in each group. Recombination values were converted into map distance (centimorgan, cM) by applying the Kosambi function. A molecular linkage map of silkworm was constructed.
    Construction of AFLP linkage map of the silkworm (Bombyx mori)
    ZHU Yu-fang1,2, TAN Yuan-de2,3, WAN Chun-ling2, LU Cheng4HE Yi-yuan5, ZHOU Ze-yang4, XIANG Zhong-huai4
    2001, 44(4):  483-493. 
    Abstract ( 3068 )   PDF (637KB) ( 1146 )     
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    AFLP markers were mapped using BC1 population [od100×(782×od100)]. From 47 BC1 samples 430 polymorphic markers were detected using an improved method of AFLP, called silver staining AFLP, which was to some extent different from the original AFLP method, called radiation AFLP. In this study 17 AFLP primer pairs and two restriction enzymes PstⅠ and TaqⅠ were used. Being tested by chi-square test under P=0.05 level for 1∶1 segregation proportion, 253 valid loci that might be used in mapping were obtained. The ratio of the valid loci to polymorphic loci was 58.84%. Twenty eight linkage groups with 163 loci were mapped by using Mapmaker/Exp(Version 3.0b), in which we set LOD=3.0 and maximum recombination fraction= 0.3, and Kosambi function. There were 90 unlinked loci in these 253 valid loci and the ratio of mapping loci to valid loci was 64.43%. The number of loci mapped in the 28 groups was at a range of 2~28 and there were 5.8 (average value) loci per group. The total length of the groups was 2 998.9 cM. The lengths of the 28 groups varied at a range of 4.5~652.8 cM and the average distances between loci on the 28 groups were at a range of 4.5~36.7 cM. The average length of groups was 107.1 cM.
    Mitochondrial DNA ND4 sequence variation and phylogeny of five species of Bostrychidae (Coleoptera)
    HUANG Yong-cheng1, LI Wei-feng1, LU Wen2, CHEN Yong-jiu3,ZHANG Ya-ping3
    2001, 44(4):  494-500. 
    Abstract ( 3088 )   PDF (304KB) ( 873 )     
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    The Bostrychidae represent a highly destructive group of wood-boring and stored product beetles. We sequenced the mitochondrioal DNA gene encoding NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4(ND4) with non-invasive DNA Genotyping from 7 samples of 5 species of this family. The length of sequences was 204 bp. Sequencecomparison analysis indicated high variations in sequences of each species. The ND4 phylogenetic trees had been constructed for 5 Bostrychidae species with PAUP 3.1.1. This result was compared with the results based on the morphology of 5 species. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationship among the species and genera that each species belongs to were discussed. The results indicated that H. aequalis of genus Heterobostrychus diverged the earliest, then did B. parallela of genus Bostrychopsis, S. anale and S.conigerum of genus Sinoxylon, X. religiosus of genus Xylothrips in turns. The two species of S. anale and S. conigerum were closely related, and they diverged last. This was basically identical with the results based on morphology.
    The pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana to Helicoverpa armigera under different temperatures and humidities
    SUN Lu-juan, WU Kong-ming, GUO Yu-yuan
    2001, 44(4):  501-506. 
    Abstract ( 2949 )   PDF (260KB) ( 1249 )     
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    The pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana to Helicoverpa armigera under different temperatures and humidities was studied in the laboratory. The 1~4instar larvae of the cotton bollworm were infected with different concentrations of B. bassiana under 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30℃ conditions. The results showed that under 25℃, the LT50s of the larvae treated with three different concentrations of B. bassiana were the shortest, the larvae died most quickly and the mortalities were the highest. The LT50s were prolonged as the ambient temperature turned-higher or lower than 25℃, and the larvae died slowly under these temperatures. There were significant differences among the mortalities of the cotton bollworm under different humidities. The larvae died most quickly and the mortality was the highest under 95% relative humidity, while the mortality decreased drastically under 70% relative humidity.
    An analysis on the population dynamics of fleas in the manmade plague focuses of Harbin suburbs
    LI Zhong-lai1, YANG Yan2, CHEN Shu-guang2
    2001, 44(4):  507-511. 
    Abstract ( 2884 )   PDF (251KB) ( 923 )     
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    The burrow nest, body and burrow track fleas of the Daurian ground squirrel, Spermophilus dauricus, and their infecting rates in the man-made plague focuses in the suburbs of Harbin,Heilongjiang Province, China were investigated during 1982~1999. Nine flea species were found from the ground squirrel burrow nest,body and burrow track,among which Citellophilus tesquorum sungaris was the dominant species (89.65%) and Neopsylla bidentatiformis came the second (10.26%). There existed significant differences among the flea indexes of the three categories as well as their infecting rates (P<0.01). The correlation between indexes of the burrow nest flea and body flea was significant (P0.05). The indexes of burrow nest flea,body flea and burrow track flea were approximate to 650∶140∶1,and their infecting rates approximate to 165∶88∶1.
    Water loss dynamics during the pupal stage of the cottonbollworm at extreme humidities
    WU Kun-jun, GONG Pei-yu
    2001, 44(4):  512-517. 
    Abstract ( 2756 )   PDF (254KB) ( 980 )     
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    Performance and body water dynamics in the pupal stage of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, were investigated at 25℃ and relative humidities (RH) of 0%,9%,22.5%, 80%, 92%, and 100%. The non-diapause pupae failed to emerge at RH≤9% and about 20% of them succeeded in eclosion at 22.5% RH. The high humidities showed little influence on their survival. The diapausing individuals rarely died at all the humidities tested except 0% RH for 30 days, during which the diapause termination percent obviously increased with decreasing humidity. Significant linear relationships were found between the rate of cumulative water loss in both diapause and non-diapause pupae since one-day-old and their ages in day. The non-diapause pupae that died at each of the low RHs lost more than 32% of their body water on the day before death. The mean water loss in the diapausing specimens at 0% RH for one month averaged 22.4% and those at RH≥90% did not exceed 3.6% in the same period. The cuticular permeabilities of pupae determined with different specimens in 2,4, 8,12 and 24 hours respectively were always greater than that obtained with the identical specimens in the corresponding periods except in 2 hours. The maximum permeability of the nondiapause pupae, 9.0 and 10.7 μg·cm-2·h-1·mm Hg-1 for female and male respectively, occurred in 4 hours while that of the diapausing individuals, 4.7(♀) and 5.4() μg·cm-2·h-1·mm Hg-1, appeared in 2 hours.
    Insect infestation and acorn fate in Quercus liaotungensis
    YU Xiao-dong,ZHOU Hong-zhang,LUO Tian-hong,HE Jun-jian,ZHANG Zhi-bin
    2001, 44(4):  518-524. 
    Abstract ( 3333 )   PDF (322KB) ( 1120 )     
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    Insect infestation and its effects on acorn fate in Quercus liaotungensis was studied in Beijing in 1998~1999. The results showed that insect infestation influenced strongly acorn germination rate: insect-infested acorns exhibited a lower germination rate than that of noninfested ones. The infested acorns could not germinate or died eventually after germination. Seed parasitoids, two weevils, Curculio dentipes and Curculio sp., a tortricid moth, Cydia kurokoi, and an unnamed pyralid moth, developed within acorns from eggs to advanced larvae. These larvae penetrated the hard seed wall and came to hibernate under ground after acorns fell down. Of all acorns within a population, the penetrating time was not synchronized and ranged from 2 to 50 days. The infested rate of acorns was as high as 45.41%. Insect parasitism was shown to have an influence on acorn growth and development: the size-pattern of infested acorns was between that of noninfested mature ones and that of immature ones; infested acorns lost 16.05% of their fresh weight compared to those that developed normally. Based on this study, it is concluded that insect infestation decided to a great deal the fate of Quercus liaotungensis acorns and would strongly influence its regeneration.
    Design and building of GIS database for Chilo suppressalis
    WANG Zheng-jun1,2, CHENG Jia-an2, LI Dian-mo1*
    2001, 44(4):  525-533. 
    Abstract ( 2701 )   PDF (390KB) ( 973 )     
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    It is the precondition and foundation to build GIS database for analysis of population spatio-temporal dynamics. Based on introduction to the conception and feature of GIS database, ArcView GIS 3.1 was used to develop database for Chilo suppressalis in Zhejiang Province. The database, which includes spatial and corresponding attribute database, was built by classifying, coding, inputting and editing original data, etc. The spatial database comprised the boundary map, river map, road map, contour map and soil category map of Zhejiang Province, etc. and the attribute database included meteorologic, cultivated, light trapping and field sampling data, etc. We use place name as the primary key word to build the relationships between the spatial database and attribute database or each attribute tables. The database will be able to provide powerful assistance for pest managers in spatio-temporal analysis, besides the basic database management functions, such as data inputting, outputting, editing and querying.
    The effects of high temperature on both yeast-like symbionts and amino acid requirements of Nilaparvata lugens
    FU Qiang1,2, ZHANG Zhi-tao1, HU Cui2, LAI Feng-xiang1
    2001, 44(4):  534-540. 
    Abstract ( 2742 )   PDF (301KB) ( 1190 )     
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    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, was subject to a 35℃ treatment for 72 h at the egg stage, and the development of yeast-like symbionts and amino acid requirements of both heat-treated and untreated N. lugens were studied. The results indicated that heat-treated N. lugens harbored substantially fewer symbionts at the nymphal stage as compared with untreated one. By rearing on 22 chemically defined diets, with single amino acid deleted for each diet, only the requirements of heat-treated N. lugens for 8 essential amino acids, i.e. His, Lys, Leu, Ile, Thr, Val, Phe, Try, increased obviously with the rate of adult emergence as indicator. It was proposed that the yeast-like symbionts be closely related to the requirements of above 8 essential amino acids for N. lugens.
    Attractive activity to natural enemies and component analysisof the rinses from tea aphid body surface
    HAN Bao-yu
    2001, 44(4):  541-547. 
    Abstract ( 3134 )   PDF (319KB) ( 1041 )     
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    With behaviour bioassay and electroantennogram investigation,it is found that both n-hexane and ether rinses from tea aphid body surface showed obvious attractive activity to its important natural enemies Aphidius sp., Chrysopa sinica, and Coccinella septempunctata and the attractive activity of n-hexane rinse was slight stronger. GC and GC-MS analyses showed that the main components in n-hexane rinse were undecane, benzaldehyde, 2,5-hexanedione, 2,5-dihydro-thiophene, linallol, naphthalene,-4-methyl-octane, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (dibutyl phthalate), dibutyl phthalate and eicosane, in which the amounts of benzaldehyde, 2,5-hexanedione and linalool were a little more than the others. The main components from ether rinse were E-2-hexenoic acid, heptadecane, 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl-pentadecane, eicosane, tetratetracontane, dibutyl phthalate and nonadecane, among which the amounts of E-2-hexenoic acid and heptadecane were much more.
    The molecular phylogeny of some species of the bidentatiformis group of the genus Neopsylla based on 16s rRNA gene
    LU Liang, WU Hou-yong
    2001, 44(4):  548-554. 
    Abstract ( 3307 )   PDF (294KB) ( 994 )     
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    The molecular phylogeny of seven species of the bidentatiformis group in the genus Neopsylla was studied based on the mutation of 16s rRNA gene in mitochondrial genome. The results showed that the interspecies mutation rate of five species (N.bidentatiformis, N. mana, N. pleski, N. teratura and N. hongyangensis) was 1%, the same as the intraspecies mutation, suggesting that the relations among these species are closer; while the mutation rate of N.abagatui is 4%, suggesting the long diversity history of N.abagatui. Four samples of N. bidentatiformis from two localities showed two genotypes, one of which was also found in N. hongyangensis. As suggested also by the morphological character, N. hongyangensis should not be classified to the setosa group. Whether N. hongyangensis and N. bidentatiformis are the same species needs further study. N. siboi showed unexpected large mutation rate (20%) compared with morphologically related species N. teratura, and the reason for this is not clear.
    A study on the genus Cerataphis Lichtenstein fromChina with the description of one new species(Homoptera: Hormaphididae)
    QIAO Ge-xia, ZHANG Guang-xue
    2001, 44(4):  555-559. 
    Abstract ( 2338 )   PDF (208KB) ( 1026 )     
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    The genus Cerataphis Lichtenstein from China is studied with one species, C.parsitica Qiao et Zhang described as new to science. Eight morphological features are figured and a key to the species from China is provided. Embryological characters of the genus are described for the first time.
    Two new species ofSimulium (Nevermannia) from Guizhou Province, China (Diptera:Simuliidae)
    CHEN Han-bin
    2001, 44(4):  560-566. 
    Abstract ( 2355 )   PDF (274KB) ( 1129 )     
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    Two new species of Simuliidae, Simulium (Nevermannia) qingshuiense sp. Nov. and S.(N.) qiaolaoense sp. Nov., collected from the rivulets and tributaries of Qingshui River in Leigong Mountain Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province, are described and compared with the closely related species.
    Host plant preference of the polyphagous leafminers Liriomyza spp.
    ZHAO Yun-xian, KANG Le
    2001, 44(4):  567-573. 
    Abstract ( 2521 )   PDF (368KB) ( 935 )     
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    Host selection of the polyphagous leafminers in the genus Liriomyza includes their preference for some tissues and leaves of the same plant, certain species of plants and some varieties or strains of these plants. The formation of the preference was influenced by physical and chemical characteristics of the host plants, and larval feeding experience as well. Gradual physiological adaptation of the leafminer larvae to the novel hosts was widening their host plant range.
    Application of cell electrophysiological techniques in insect resistance research
    HE Bing-jun, LIU An-xi
    2001, 44(4):  574-581. 
    Abstract ( 2589 )   PDF (414KB) ( 1076 )     
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    Many kinds of insects have developed resistance to all known classes of pesticides. Ion channels are the primary targets for several classes of natural and synthetic insecticides. The rapid development of electrophysiology and molecular biology during recent years have greatly facilitated the study of ion channels at cellular and molecular level. The principal members of the family of voltage-dependent channels are those selective for sodium, potassium, and calcium. The activities of all the channels of a cell can be monitored in voltage- and patch-clamp studies. Voltage and patch-clamp techniques allow direct measurement of voltage-dependent activation, voltage-dependent inactivation and selective ion transport of voltagesensitive ion channels. They can also demonstrate effects of pesticides on specific ion channels in excitable membrane. Patch-clamp technique allows more detailed analysis of many kinds of insecticides modification of ion currents at the whole-cell and single-channel level. In the nervous system, ion channels are involved in sensory transducting, signal propagation, and processing. These properties of channels can be altered by many kinds of pesticides. Electrophysiological, isotopic flux methods, and microfluorometric determination provide an alternative approach to estimation of insecticides on the ion channels. A substantial number of electrophysiological investigations had been carried out on insects with resistance factors. This paper summarized the information on electrophysiological techniques involved in insects resistance studies and insecticides selection.
    Resistance of transgenic cottons expressing Bt and CpTI insecticidal protein genes to Helicoverpa armigera
    FAN Xian-lin1, RUI Chang-hui1, XU Chong-ren2, MENG Xiang-qing1,GUO San-dui3, ZHAO Jian-zhou1
    2001, 44(4):  582-585. 
    Abstract ( 2502 )   PDF (184KB) ( 830 )     
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    Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii
    YANG Xiao-wen, ZHANG Guang-xue, CHEN Xiao-feng
    2001, 44(4):  586-589. 
    Abstract ( 2368 )   PDF (182KB) ( 988 )     
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    A preliminary study on spontaneous electrical activity in brain ganglions of the larvae of three fly species
    WANG Li-wen, WU Li-ying, XUE Wan-qi
    2001, 44(4):  590-593. 
    Abstract ( 2255 )   PDF (302KB) ( 930 )     
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