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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 January 2014, Volume 57 Issue 1
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Differences in the expression of the major royal jelly protein 8 gene in different castes of Apis mellifera
    LI Jiang-Hong, LIANG Qing-Huan, CHEN Da-Fu, LIANG Qin
    2014, 57(1):  1-7. 
    Abstract ( 2712 )   PDF (4949KB) ( 1769 )     
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    【Aim】 Major royal jelly proteins play a vital role in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) caste determination. The aim of this study was to study the expression pattern of major royal jelly protein 8 gene mrjp8 and its possible function in different castes of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). 【Methods】 The expression level of mrjp8 in different developmental stages and tissues of different castes (worker, queen and drone) was determined using realtime quantitative PCR. 【Results】 The results showed that mrjp8 was highly expressed in the venom glands of 9 day-old adult worker bees with a level of 10 000 times higher than the reference, but significantly lowly expressed in other developmental stages and tissues. The expression of mrjp8 in workers was both time-and tissue-specific. In drones, the expression of mrjp8 was lowly expressed with a level similar to the reference. In queens, the expression of mrjp8 was non-tissue-specific with a level of 1 000 times as high as the reference. 【Conclusion】 Such expression pattern of mrjp8 hints its positive roles in worker defense and maintenance of the long life span of queens, and this provides a basis for future research of biological function and the evolution of mrjp8 and even the diversification of the whole major royal jelly protein gene family.
    Prokaryotic expression and purification of bombyxin-Ⅱ in the silkworm (Bombyx mori)
    XU Xin, LIU Zhao-Yang, CUI Hai-Bo, YANG Yang, GUO Xiao-Qi, ZHANG Tao, LIU Qing-Xin, CUI Wei-Zheng
    2014, 57(1):  8-12. 
    Abstract ( 3259 )   PDF (10510KB) ( 2052 )     
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    【Aim】 To establish a simple, quick and effective method to get a large number of bombyxin-Ⅱ (BBXⅡ). 【Methods】 Full-length cDNA of the bombyxin-Ⅱ gene from the silkworm (Bombyx mori) was obtained through RT-PCR technique, and its promoter sequences were cloned based on genome sequences of the silkworm. Meanwhile we got purified BBXⅡ protein by affinity chromatography. 【Results】 We obtained the cDNA of bombyxin-Ⅱ by reverse transcription of the mRNA from the head of the silkworm and built the prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-BBXⅡ. The BBXⅡwas highly expressed by IPTG induction. Then we successfully got a large amount of purified BBXⅡ by HisTrap HP affinity chromatography. 【Conclusion】 The prokaryotic expression and protein purification technology that we built is a simple and effective method to obtain a lot of preparation of BBXⅡ. The results lay a foundation for further research of the secretion and action mechanisms of BBX and for discovery of BBX hypoglycemic drugs by using prokaryotic expression system.
    Differentially expressed genes in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) against infection by Beauveria bassiana
    HOU Cheng-Xiang, QIN Guang-Xing, GENG Tao, GAO Kun, PAN Zhong-Hua, QIAN He-Ying, GUO Xi-Jie
    2014, 57(1):  13-24. 
    Abstract ( 3148 )   PDF (11913KB) ( 1638 )     
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    【Aim】 To screen the responsive genes of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) against infection by Beauveria bassiana in order to further elaborate its molecular mechanisms of defensing B. bassiana infection. 【Methods】 High throughput Solexa sequencing technology was employed in the transcriptome analysis of silkworm larvae of the infected and uninfected (control) groups. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their functions, classifications and pathways were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. Ten DEGs were further identified by fluorescence quantitative PCR. 【Results】 With Solexa sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, 377 DEGs including 236 up-regulated genes and 141 down-regulated genes were identified. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that there were both up- and down-regulated DEGs in any pathway. Twelve up-regulated DEGs and 26 down-regulated ones were involved in three significantly enriched KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways, i. e., ribosome, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis and spliceosome pathways. Both the quantitative PCR and Solexa sequencing results indicated that the immune response-related genes including lysozyme, heat shock protein, glutathione S-transferase and peptidoglycan recognition protein genes were all up-regulated. 【Conclusion】 The differentially expressed genes identified in this study, especially those up-regulated ones, are possibly involved in the silkworm response against B. bassiana invasion. The genes related to immune response such as those encoding lysozyme, heat shock protein, glutathione S-transferase and peptidoglycan recognition protein may be directly involved in immune recognition and defense of the silkworm against the B. bassiana infection. The results provide a new basis and clues for clarifying the mechanisms of interaction between the silkworm and entomopathogenic fungi at the molecular level.
    Effects of transinfection of Wolbachia from Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) on reproductive fitness and adult longevity of Tetranychus phaselus (Acari: Tetranychidae)
    ZHAO Dong-Xiao, ZHANG Yan-Kai, CHEN Han, HONG Xiao-Yue
    2014, 57(1):  25-35. 
    Abstract ( 2574 )   PDF (15869KB) ( 1704 )     
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    【Aim】 Wolbachia are a group of maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods and cause an array of effects on host reproduction. Recently, researchers have carried out transfer experiments that generated novel infection types to elucidate the interaction between Wolbachia and the hosts. 【Methods】 Under laboratory conditions, Wolbachia infected by the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), were extracted and purified, and then were transferred into the new host Tetranychus phaselus Ehara using microinjection. The effects of Wolbachia extracted from L. striatellus and the native Wolbachia on reproductive fitness and adult longevity of T. phaselus were studied, and the densities of Wolbachia during host aging were measured. 【Results】 Our results showed that the novel Wolbachia was present at a rather low density in T. phaselus, being only 0.5% of the densities of the native Wolbachia. Unlike native Wolbachia, novel Wolbachia could not induce cytoplasmic incompatibility in the T. phaselus population, but they could decrease the fecundity of T. phaselus significantly. 【Conclusion】 This study indicates that Wolbachia from L. striatellus have potential ability to inhibit population expansion of T. phaselus and will be valuable for biocontrol of T. phaselus.
    Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), under deltamethrin stress
    LI Jin, LI Feng-Liang, JIAO Dong-Xu, LI Na, CHENG Luo-Gen
    2014, 57(1):  36-44. 
    Abstract ( 2749 )   PDF (9456KB) ( 1753 )     
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     The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., is one of the most destructive pests in cruciferous vegetables (CFV) all over the world and has developed varied resistance to kinds of insecticides, especially the fastest growing resistance to pyrethroids. Deltamethrin is one of the most toxic synthetic pyrethroid pesticides. Our previous research compared the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) protein profiles between the deltamethrin-sensitive strain (DS) and the deltamethrin-resistant strain (DR) of the diamondback moth at the adult stage, and significant differences had been identified. In this study, 89 protein spots were identified by 2-DE from the 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella, and then 30 out of 89 spots were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis and protein database search to test the proteins expressed only in the resistant strain or differentially expressed in two strains. Thus, 10 protein spots were successfully identified with definite identity, properties and function. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression patterns at the mRNA and protein levels were correlated with each other. This study identifies several proteins that are differentially expressed under the deltamethrin stress, and provides a new scientific basis regarding targets and action mechanisms of deltamethrin and for screening of the resistance-related proteins.
    Biological activity of benzothiazole against Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) at different developmental stages
    CHEN Cheng-Yu, ZHAO Yun-He, LI Hui, ZHANG Peng, MU Wei, LIU Feng
    2014, 57(1):  45-51. 
    Abstract ( 2547 )   PDF (6820KB) ( 1940 )     
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    【Aim】 The biological activity of benzothiazole on Bradysia odoriphaga Yang et Zhang was assessed in the laboratory. 【Methods】 The biological activity of benzothiazole against adults, eggs, larvae and nymphs of B. odoriphaga was detected with fumigation method, the inhibition of benzothiazole on the respiratory rate of B. odoriphaga adults was tested with an Oxytherm system, and the behavioural response of B. odoriphaga adults to benzothiazole was measured with Y-tube olfactometer. 【Results】 The results showed that the LC50 values of benzothiazole against female and male adults were 0.186-0.052 and 0.163-0.039 μL/L at 0.5-2.0 h after treatment, respectively. After fumigation with 0.01-0.13 μL/L benzothiazole for 24 h, the egg hatching rate of B. odoriphaga at 6 d after treatment was 4.83%-82.39%, while that of the control was 96.97%. The LC50 value of benzothiazole against the 4th-instar larvae at 6-72 h after treatment was 1.247-0.248 μL/L. After fumigation with 0.01-0.09 μL/L benzothiazole for 24 h, the eclosion rate of pupae was 8.17%-69.63% at 5 d after treatment, and that of the control was 96.23%. After the female and male adults were treated with 0.052 and 0.039 μL/L benzothiazole for 2.5 h, respectively, their respiratory rates were higher than that of the control group first, then decreased to the comparable level of the control group, and finally were significantly lower than that of the control group. Benzothiazole also showed good luring activity to adults, and the attraction rates to female and male adults were 88.33% and 78.33% at the dose of 0.5 μL at 0.5 L/min air velocity, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Benzothiazole has strong fumigation toxicity to B. odoriphaga at various developmental stages and distinct luring activity to its adults.
    Effects of two different photoperiods on cold hardiness of naturally over-wintering adults and laboratory-bred larvae of Chrysoperla sinica (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
    CHEN Zhen-Zhen, LU Hong, WANG Yue-Hua, CAO Yan-Xia, YU Jin-Feng, YIN Xiang-Chu, XU Yong-Yu
    2014, 57(1):  52-60. 
    Abstract ( 2382 )   PDF (1885KB) ( 981 )     
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    【Aim】 Short photoperiod can influence cold hardiness of insects in diapause-inducing period. In order to clarify the effects of photoperiod on cold hardening of Chrysoperla sinica (Tjeder), our study focused on cold hardiness of Ch. sinica adults during the process of diapause-termination and nondiapause periods. 【Methods】 The supercooling ability (supercooling point, SCP; freezing point, FP) and the mortalities of overwintering adults from the natural population at -12℃ and the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of the laboratory population at -7℃ were investigated during adult diapause termination and induction of the long (15L∶9D) and short photoperiods (9L∶15D) in the laboratory condition, respectively. 【Results】 The SCP values of overwintering Ch. sinica adults in December were mainly distributed between -10℃ and -14℃. The SCP values of 43.70% overwintering adults were below -12℃, and the mortality of overwintering adults at -12℃ for 1 d was 62.00%. The mortalities of overwintering adults at -12℃ treated under the long photoperiod were higher than those under the short photoperiod except those treated for 0 d, and significant difference existed among adults treated for 15, 20, and 25 d. The SCP and FP values of the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae in the short photoperiod were higher but had no significant difference from those in the long photoperiod (P>0.05), but the mortalities of the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae at -7℃ under the short photoperiod were 67.00%±4.04% and 24.33%±1.33%, significantly lower than those under the long photoperiod, which were 78.00%±1.33% and 53.00%±3.46%, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The results indicate that the Ch. sinica is a freeze-intolerant insect, and its cold hardiness could be enhanced under the diapause-inducing short photoperiod.
    Biology and demography of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on five cauliflower cultivars under laboratory conditions (In English)
    Gholamhosein HASANSHAHI, Fatemeh JAHAN, Habib ABBASIPOUR, Mohammad SALEHI-TABAR, Alireza ASKARIANZADEH, Jaber KARIMI, Ali Hossein RAHIMI
    2014, 57(1):  61-66. 
    Abstract ( 2541 )   PDF (799KB) ( 1988 )     
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    【Aim】 The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is globally regarded as most important pest of cruciferous plants. Due to increasing costs of spraying and destructive hazards on the environment, resistant cultivar is one of the perfect alternative methods to control P. xylostella. In the present study, due to lack of enough knowledge about resistance and susceptibility of different cultivars of cauliflower, we evaluated antibiosis resistance of some common cultivars and effects of different plant cultivars on potential of pest population growth. 【Methods】 In this research, life table parameters of P. xylostella were studied on five cauliflower cultivars including Smilla, White cloud, Buris, Galiblanka and Tokita under laboratory conditions of 25±2℃, 65%±5% RH and 16L∶8D photoperiod. 【Results】 The developmental time of immature stages ranged from 13.44 d on Smilla cultivar to 15.88 d on Buris cultivar. The highest fecundity of P. xylostella was observed on Buris cultivar. P. xylostella reared on Smilla cultivar had the highest intrinsic rate of increase (0.27±0.02) and finite rate of increase (1.32±0.13) and the lowest doubling time (2.50 d). 【Conclusion】 Therefore, Smilla cultivar is more susceptible than others to P. xylostella in the southern region of Tehran and the pest population can be quickly increased in the suitable conditions.
    Induction of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in cucumber leaves after infestation by Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromizidae) larvae
    SUN Xing-Hua, ZHOU Xiao-Rong, PANG Bao-Ping, MENG Qing-Jiu
    2014, 57(1):  67-73. 
    Abstract ( 2429 )   PDF (1094KB) ( 1221 )     
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    【Aim】 In order to investigate the mechanism of interactions between Liriomyza huidobrensis  (Blanchard) and its host plants and build an indispensable foundation for controlling the fly by use of inducible defenses. 【Methods】 High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) were used to determine the effects of infestation of larval L. huidobrensis on induction of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), respectively, in cucumber leaves. 【Results】 The results showed that JA contents in the damaged leaves were significantly higher than those in intact controls only 1 d after the larval continuous infestation, and the increase magnitudes in the light-damage treatment and the severedamage treatment reached the maximum at 3-5 d after larval infestation, increasing 2.01 and 1.62 times as compared with the intact control, respectively. SA contents were significantly higher at 3 d after larval infestation, and the increase magnitudes in the lightdamage treatment and the severe-damage treatment reached the maximum at 9 d after larval infestation, rising 4.66 and 1.67 times as compared with the intact control, respectively. The induction of JA and SA was significantly systemic in the severe-damage treatment but not in the lightdamage treatment. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that the larval infestation of L. huidobrensis can induce the JA and SA increase in cucumber leaves.
    Effect of tillage system on soil surface arthropod diversity in the black soil region of Northeast China
    SUN Tao, CHEN Qiang, ZHANG Xing-Yi
    2014, 57(1):  74-80. 
    Abstract ( 1843 )   PDF (6004KB) ( 1634 )     
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    【Aim】 To provide references to revealing the response of arthropod diversity to the land management through investigating the diversity and trophic functional group of arthropod communities on the soil surface with different tillage systems in the black soil region of Northeast China. 【Methods】 The pitfall trap method was used in the Hailun Agroecology Experimental Station, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences from July to September in 2012, to investigate the community composition, diversity and functional group structure, and to calculate the relative abundance, richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou evenness index, Simpson dominant index, Cody index and S-rensen index of arthropods on the soil surface with five tillage systems, i. e., no-tillage (NT), reduced tillage (RT), moldboard plough (MP), rotary tillage (ROT) and combination tillage (CT), based on the long-term tillage experiment. 【Results】 A total of 2 942 individuals of soil surface arthropods belonging to 7 orders and 18 families were collected. There were 15, 11 and 11 families under NT, RT and CTM, accounting for 83.34%, 61.12% and 61.12% of the total fauna, respectively. The relative abundance of Coleoptera and Araneae was the highest under the five tillage systems, and Carabidae was the dominant group in the black farmland. The largest values of richness and diversity were found under NT, while the lowest under RT. The results showed that the predators were dominant under all tillage systems except ROT. The analysis of similarities of arthropod community showed that the similarities of soil surface arthropod fauna varied among different tillage systems, with the highest similarity between NT and CT and the lowest similarity between MP and CT. 【Conclusion】 Tillage system could affect surface soil and vegetation micro-environment condition, thus affecting the community composition, population and functional group of arthropods. NT has higher abundance of arthropod group and predatory group, which contributes to conserving arthropod diversity of farmland in the black soil region.
    Identification of the instars of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    XU Xiang-Li, LIU Xiao-Xia, ZHANG Qing-Wen, WU Jun-Xiang
    2014, 57(1):  81-87. 
    Abstract ( 2684 )   PDF (14295KB) ( 1675 )     
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    【Aim】 To determine the instars of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) rapidly based on morphological characteristics.【Methods】 The body length, body width, head width, antenna length, cornicle length, and hind tibia length were measured in the winged and wingless morphs of S. avenae, based on the comparisons of external morphological characteristics. 【Results】 The results indicated that the body length, body width, head width, antenna length, cornicle length, and hind tibia length are significantly different among different instars of wingless and winged morphs. The body length, body width, head width, and antenna length were observed to have high overlaps between adjacent instars. However, the hind tibia length showed low or no overlap between adjacent instars of winged and wingless morphs. Except for an overlap of 13.93% between the 4th instar nymphs and adults of the winged morph, the cornicle length displayed low or no overlap between adjacent instars of two wing morphs, indicating that the hind tibia length and cornicle length could be regarded as remarkable criteria to identify instars of two wing morphs. Other external morphological differences were also found in the antennae, wing pads, and cauda among instars. Wing pads and wing length of the 3rd-4th instar nymphs and adults are larger in the winged morph than in the wingless morph, indicating that the external morphologies of wings are useful for the determination of 3rd-4th instar nymphs and adults or wing morphs. There are five antennal segments in 1st and 2nd instar nymphs and six antennal segments in 3rd-4th instar nymphs and adults, respectively. The cauda is welldeveloped in adults while incomplete in nymphs. The number of antennal segments and development degree of cauda could be used as the convenient features to divide the instars. 【Conclusion】 Practice has shown that the instar stages of wing morphs could be quickly identified using the cornicle length and hind tibia length as the remarkable criteria, based on the convenient features such as the external morphologies of the wings, number of the antennal segments, and development degree of the cauda.
    A taxonomic study of the genus Armigeres (Diptera: Culicidae) from China based on female terminalia
    DONG Xue-Shu, Zhou Hong-Ning, DONG Li-Min, GUO Xiao-Fang, ZENG Xu-Can
    2014, 57(1):  88-110. 
    Abstract ( 2393 )   PDF (27587KB) ( 1160 )     
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    【Aim】 To clarify the female genitalia characteristics of the genus Armigeres in taxonomic value. 【Methods】 We observed the female genitalia of 16 species belonging to the genus Armigeres recorded in China based on long time specimen collections in Yunnan, and made detailed descriptions and conducted systematic classification study on female genitalia characteristics. 【Results】 According to the characters of the female genitalia, we compiled the key to its 2 subgenera and 16 species. 【Conclusion】 Our research showed that the characteristics of female genitalia of each species from China are stable, and for some species female genitalia have more remarkable characteristics than male genitalia. We consider that the classification of mosquito and new species naming should be based on the female genitalia. They ars as important as male genitalia in taxonomy.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Advances in endosymbionts and their functions in insects
    YANG Yi-Ting, GUO Jian-Yang, LONG Chu-Yun, LIU Huai, WAN Fang-Hao
    2014, 57(1):  111-112. 
    Abstract ( 4439 )   PDF (2046KB) ( 3369 )     
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    Interactions between endosymbionts and their insect host have drawn much attention at present. Endosymbionts could facilitate their hosts to acquire additional nutrition, protect them from natural enemy and enhance their insecticide resistance. Their special roles include facilitating digestion of food or providing nutrients that were limited or lacking in the host diet, enhancing pathogen and parasitoid resistance through secretion of antimicrobial peptides or toxin and strengthening resistance of their hosts by regulating physiological reaction and accurate expression of resistance genes. These facts strongly suggest that endosymbionts play an important role in regulating host development through mediating the biological characters to expand the host’s ecological niche. The functions of endosymbionts were analyzed through examination of changes in biological characters of host before and after infection. Recently, new techniques on transcriptomics, proteomics and genomics have promoted the research on mutualism mechanisms between symbionts and insect hosts. This will not only reveal the endosymbionts and their functional genes on host reproduction, survival, population dynamics and adaption to the environment, but also open new insight into potential biological roles of endosymbionts, providing new insight for biological control of pest insect.
    A review of researches on Palaeozoic insects in China
    GU Jun-Jie1,5, YUE Yan-Li2,5,*, WEN Wan-Cheng3, ZONG Li-Yi3, REN Dong4
    2014, 57(1):  123-132. 
    Abstract ( 2936 )   PDF (5354KB) ( 2135 )     
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    Since Mr. Lin Qibin described the first Palaeozoic insect of China in 1978, more than 20 contributions of the Palaeozoic insects in China have appeared. Sixty-one species assigned to 9 orders (and/or superorders) were described. Among them, 47 species came from Carboniferous and 14 species from Permian. All the fossil specimens were found from 9 provinces distributed in northwestern, southwestern and eastern China. In this article, a list of Chinese described Palaeozoic insect species with their distribution and geological age data is provided, an investigation and review of the current knowledge and research of Chinese Palaeozoic insects is summarized, and the problems in the study are analyzed. Among them, the variation on wing venation of fossil insects and the erection of high rank taxa should be given sufficient attention. The current results demonstrate that the Palaeozoic insects in China have been highly diverse and represent an important stage of evolutionary radiation of Pterygota with the appearance of Palaeoptera and Neoptera.
    SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
    Ultramorphology of sensilla on the larval antennae and mouthparts of Carposina coreana Kim (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae)
    CHEN Jing, HUA Bao-Zhen
    2014, 57(1):  133-140. 
    Abstract ( 2981 )   PDF (25112KB) ( 2818 )     
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    【Aim】 To explore the differences in larval sensilla of Carposinidae with different host range. 【Methods】 The ultramorphology of sensilla on the larval antennae and mouthparts of the monophagous Carposina coreana Kim, which feeds exclusively on fruits of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy. 【Results】 The basal scape of the antenna is devoid of sensilla. The pedicel possesses two sensilla chaetica and three sensilla basiconica. The terminal flagellum carries distally one sensillum styloconicum and three sensilla basiconica. Six types of sensilla are found on the mouthparts: sensilla chaetica are abundant and widespread; sensilla styloconica are mainly located on the galeae, maxillary palp and labial palp; sensilla digitiformia are found on the epipharynx and the lateral margin of the distal segments of maxillary palps; sensilla basiconica and sensilla placodea are only located on the maxilla; and epipharyngeal sensilla are only present on the epipharynx. 【Conclusion】 There is no strict correspondence between larval sensilla and host range in Carposinidae.
    CONTENTS
    Content of Volume 57 Issue 1
    2014, 57(1):  141. 
    Abstract ( 1435 )   PDF (444KB) ( 1190 )     
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